Skip to content

English Essay On General Election 2013 In Pakistan

Nearly half of Pakistan's population of 180 million will head to the polls on May 11 to vote in general elections that will play a big part in determining who will shape the country's future -- secularists, nationalists, or Islamists.

The campaign has been marred by violence, including large-scale attacks on political gatherings and targeted assassinations of candidates and key political figures. Secular parties have been hardest hit by the campaign of violence being carried out by the Tehrik-e Taliban Pakistan. In some provinces, separatists have carried out violent attacks.

The election is considered the world's fifth-largest, but many potential voters will not be casting ballots. In an election that will allow newly classified "third-gender" citizens (hermaphrodites, transsexuals, and transvestites) to vote and to run as candidates for the first time, societal taboos and the threat of violence in religiously conservative areas will keep tens of millions of women away from the polls.

The 48 million men and 37 million women who are registered to vote will determine who will sit in Pakistan's 342-seat lower house of parliament, the National Assembly. Voters will directly determine 272 of those seats, while 60 seats reserved for women and 10 for minority candidates will be filled based on the proportion of the vote received by their parties.

Voting will take place in about 70,000 polling stations throughout the country, with just under 30,000 of them specifically reserved for women.

Separate votes in the provinces of Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Balochistan will determine the composition of regional legislatures.

Among the 4,500 candidates participating in the parliamentary elections and 11,000 vying to represent provincial constituencies, winners will be determined by "first past the post" voting.

Elected lawmakers choose the country's prime minister and four provincial chief ministers by majority vote, and the winners are then free to form their administrations.

PARTIES

Pakistan's May 11 elections are distinguished by the lack of any broad electoral alliances among the country's major parties. The main political camps are the secularists, the Islamists, and the nationalists.

Secularists

Pakistan People's Party (PPP)

The PPP is co-chaired by President Asif Ali Zardari and was the leading member of the ruling coalition that governed Pakistan for the past five years. The PPP is considered a secular and liberal political party. The PPP's support base is the southern Sindh Province, but it attracts votes from urban intellectuals, wealthy landowners, and rural and urban poor throughout the nation.

Awami National Party (ANP)
This liberal, predominately ethnic Pashtun party actively opposes the Taliban. It has ruled the northwestern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province and retains strong pockets of support in the region.

Muttahida Quami Movement (MQM)
The MQM is liberal political party with a history of winning elections in the southern seaport city of Karachi. It boasts strong support among the members of the local Urdu-speaking community known as Mohajirs, or immigrants, because their ancestors migrated from India at the time of Pakistan's creation in 1947.

Nationalists

Pakistan Muslim League Nawaz (PML-N)

Led by former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif, the PML-N is Pakistan's leading conservative political party. It has ruled the country's most populous province, the eastern Punjab Province, for the past five years and retains a strong support base there.

Pakistan Movement for Justice (PTI)
Led by former cricket star Imran Khan, the PTI has attracted a lot of new followers among Pakistan's urban youth in recent years. The party is known for its vocal opposition to U.S. drone strikes in Pakistan and aggressive campaigning against traditional politicians.

Islamists

Jamiat Ulema-e Islam (JUI)

The Jamiat Ulema-e Islam (Society of Muslim Clerics) is divided into many factions. Its largest group is headed by Maulana Fazlur Rehman, a puritanical Islamist. Mainly led by traditional Sunni clerics, the JUI wants to turn Pakistan into a Shari'a state. Its strongholds are Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province and the southwestern Balochistan Province.

Jamaat-e Islami (JI)
A pan-Islamist political party similar to Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood, the Jamaat-e Islami is considered the most disciplined political machine in Pakistan. Most leaders and members are urban professionals, but the party has limited electoral appeal nationwide.

CAMPAIGN

Key Issues


The economy, chronic power shortages, security, and the future shape of the political system -- those are four key campaign issues listed by Muhammad Waseem, a prominent Pakistani political scientist.

The elections will take place amid Pakistan's worsening relations with its eastern and western neighbors, India and Afghanistan, respectively.

But the results, Waseem says, will largely be determined at the local level based on local issues and where caste, tribal, and other ties will play a large role.

Media Environment

Pakistan's booming media outlets have been highly visible during the election.

Television talk shows, a favorite for late-night television viewers, have attracted many politicians because they offer opportunities to campaign for votes while criticizing opponents.

For the first time in the country's history, paid political advertisements have become popular.

Young voters and party supporters are increasingly turning to social media to campaign. But with fewer than 10 percent of Pakistanis enjoying Internet access, the impact of social media is difficult to gauge.

Security Worries

Security is a paramount concern ahead of the elections, with the Taliban as well as separatist groups having acted on their threats to disrupt the campaign with violence.

The secular ANP has borne the brunt of most of the violence in its northwestern home base. Dozens of its members have been killed in suicide and bomb attacks on ANP campaign gatherings, for which the Taliban has claimed responsibility.

In the southern port city of Karachi, Islamist radicals have targeted the ANP, PPP, and the MQM for their secular leanings. The MQM claims to have lost more than 20 supporters and a candidate since campaigning began in April.

In the southwestern Balochistan Province, election sites and candidates have been attacked. Violence in the vast, resource-rich region is seen as part of a campaign by separatist Baluch nationalist factions who had warned politicians against participating in the elections and had vowed to disrupt the process.

In an ominous sign, Pakistan's election commission has declared some 21,000 polling stations across the country "sensitive" because "acts of terrorism are likely" on May 11.

The Contests

The elections consist of hundreds of local contests that will be determined by money, political and religious preferences, and ties of kinship.

Pakistan's National Assembly District 1 (NA-1) in Peshawar is known for hosting many historic contests. In one of the most anticipated contests, Ghulam Ahmed Bilour, a former railways minister from the ANP, is vying for reelection against former cricket star Imran Khan.

Mussrat Shaheen, a former actress known for raunchy dance steps, has added some spice to the race in NA-24, a voting district in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. She has showered her opponent, Jamiat-e Ulema Islam leader Maulana Fazlur Rehmana, with verbal barbs. But Shaheen has little chance of defeating the bearded cleric.

In the eastern Punjab Province, one of the most closely fought contests is in Rawalpindi's NA-56 voting district. There Imran Khan, who is running in multiple races, is pitted against an established local politician, pharmaceuticals businessman Hanif Abassi of the PML-N. The race is particularly interesting because security in the garrison city has fostered a vibrant campaign.

Across the country an estimated 500,000 "third-gender" citizens will be participating as voters and candidates. The development comes after a 2011 Supreme Court ruling paved the way for the separate classification of "third gender," which can include hermaphrodites, transsexuals, and transvestites.

Overall, Punjab Province appears to be the one to watch. Journalist Zahid Hussain says the shape of the future government will be determined in Punjab, which accounts for more than half of the National Assembly's seats.

Punjab "has become the major battleground between the Pakistan Muslim League-N and the Pakistan Movement for Justice. The PPP has sunk quite low now in this region. So there is going to be a major contest between these two parties in this region," Hussain says.

Possible Outcomes

An opinion poll conducted by Gallup Pakistan in March puts conservative former Prime Minister Sharif's PML-N in the lead, with some 39 percent of the likely voters supporting it.

Its traditional rival, the PPP, appears to be a distant second. It is predicted to take only 14 percent of the vote, in large part due to its dismal record during the past five years.

Political scientist Waseem says the PML-N will probably grab close to 100 parliamentary seats, followed by the PPP, which will lose its majority but will cling to constituencies in its traditional strongholds.

Imran Khan's PTI has earned the wild-card label due to its rise in popularity. Gallup predicts that 7 percent of voters will support the Justice Movement.

Waseem sees Khan's party finishing a distant third, with 20 to 40 seats. He predicts that parties such as the JUI, MQM, and ANP will reaffirm their status as important blocs in both the national and provincial parliaments.

"There is going to be a mosaic of political parties -- a kind of a hung parliament in a classical way, and then they will start making coalitions," he says. "Probably the leading party will be able to pull the strings [together]."

Since its establishment in 1947, Pakistan has had an asymmetric federal government and is a federalparliamentarydemocratic republic. At the national level, the people of Pakistan elect a bicamerallegislature, the Parliament of Pakistan. The parliament consists of a lower house called the National Assembly, which is elected directly, and an upper house called the Senate, whose members are chosen by elected provincial legislators. The head of government, the Prime Minister, is elected by the majority members of the National Assembly and the head of state (and figurehead), the President, is elected by the Electoral College, which consists of both houses of Parliament together with the four provincial assemblies. In addition to the national parliament and the provincial assemblies, Pakistan also has more than five thousand elected local governments.

The Election Commission of Pakistan, a constitutionally established institution chaired by an appointed and designated Chief Election Commissioner, supervises the general elections. The Pakistan Constitution defines (to a basic extent) how general elections are held in Part VIII, Chapter 2 and various amendments. A multi-party system is in effect, with the National Assembly consisting of 342 seats and the Senate consisting of 104 seats elected from the four provinces. The Constitution dictates that the general elections be held every five years when the National Assembly has completed its term or has been dissolved and that the Senatorial elections be held to elect members for terms of six years. By law, general elections must be held within two months of the National Assembly completing its term.[1]

Electoral system[edit]

In law and Constitution[edit]

The Constitution of Pakistan more broadly and briefly defines how general elections (to a basic extent) are conducted, giving the time of elections, and the framework under which the elections are to be conducted set up the Constitution of Pakistan in Article 222-226 in Chapter 2:

  1. No Person shall, at the same time, be a member of, both houses (National Assembly and Senate) or a House and a Provincial Assemblies.
  2. When the National Assembly or a Provincial Assembly is dissolved, a general election to the Assembly shall be held within a period of ninety days after the dissolution, and the results of the election shall be declared not later than fourteen days after the conclusion of the polls.
A general election to the National Assembly or a Provincial Assembly shall be held within a period of sixty days immediately following the day on which the day on which the term of the Assembly is due to expire, unless the Assembly has been sooner dissolved, and the results of the election shall be declared not later than fourteen days before that day.
— Article 222–226: Part VIII: Elections, Chapter:2 Electoral Laws and Conduct of Elections, source: The Constitution of Pakistan[2]

Election Commission of Pakistan[edit]

Main article: Election Commission of Pakistan

The duty of conducting elections are established in the Constitution of Pakistan. Established in 1956, the Election Commission of Pakistan holds the purpose of elections to Houses of Parliament, four provincial assemblies and for election of such other public offices as may be specified by law or until such law is made by the Parliament.[3] The Election Commission is constituted with comprising the Chief Election Commissioner as its chairman (who is a judge or/ retired judge of the Supreme Court) and four appointed members from each four provinces, each of whom is a judge of four High Courts of the four provinces; all appointed by the President by constitution.[3]

After approving the consultations from the chief justices of high courts of four provinces and the chief election commissioner, the President constitutionally approved the appointments of the designated members of the election commission.[1] The chief election commissioner is appointed by the President, in his/her discretion, for a term of 3 years. The Constitution grants the chief election commission the security of tenure and financial autonomy.

Levels of Elections[edit]

Parliamentary elections[edit]

Assemblies elections[edit]

Pakistan has a parliamentary system in which, the executive and legislature are elected directly by public voting in a Constituencies on first-past-the-post system through a secret ballot. Article 222–229 of the Constitution of Pakistan forbids the candidate of occupying the membership of National Assembly and the Provincial assemblies simultaneously. In direct elections, a candidate who obtains the highest number of votes in a constituency, is declared elected as a Member of National or a Provincial Assembly.

The Seats in the National Assembly are allocated to each of Four Provinces, the FATAs and the Federal Capital on the basis of population in accordance with the last preceding Census officially published. Members to the Seats reserved for Women and Non-Muslims, are elected in accordance with law through proportional representation system of political party's lists of candidates on the basis of total number of General Seats secured by each political party in the National Assembly or a Provincial Assembly. The National Assembly has 342 seats, usually elected for five year terms; however, if the National Assembly dissolved, a general elections must be called in ninety-days period, in accordance to the constitution.

National Assembly Composition

Senate elections[edit]

The Senate consists of 104 members, of whom 14 members are elected by each Provincial Assembly, eight members are elected from FATAs by the Members of National Assembly from these areas, two members (one woman and one technocrat) is elected from the Federal Capital by the Members of National Assembly; four women and four Technocrats are elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly. One seat in the senate is reserved for minorities in each province.

It is the responsibility of the Chief Election Commissioner to hold and make arrangements for the Senate elections in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote through electoral colleges. The term of the members of the Senate is 6 years. However, the term of the first group of the Senators, who shall retire after completion of first 3 years of the Senate, is determined by drawing of lots by the Chief Election Commission purposes.

[edit]

The President is elected in presidential elections. In an indirect election, with the winner being determined by votes casts by the electors of the Electoral College. The electoral college is composed of elected senators, members of the national and provincial assemblies. The President is a ceremonial post, head of state, and merely a figurehead with the executive powers granted to Prime Minister, by the Constitution. The Constitution grants right to both men and women to run for the presidency as it states that a presidential candidate, a Muslim, not less than 45 years of age, and a Member of the National Assembly, can contest the Presidential election. The President is elected for a term of 5 years.

It is the duty of Chief Election Commissioner to conduct elections to the office of the President in a special session of Parliament and all the Provincial Assemblies in accordance with the provisions of Second Schedule to the Constitution.

Local government elections[edit]

In order to decentralize administrative and financial authority to be accountable to Local Governments, for good governance, effective delivery of services and transparent decision making through institutionalized participation of the people at grassroots level, elections to the local government institutions are held after every four years on non party basis by the Chief Election Commissioner of Pakistan.

Members of Union Council including Union Administrator and Vice Union Administrator are elected through direct elections based on adult franchise and on the basis of joint electorate. However, for the election to the reserved seats for Women in Zila council proportionately divided among Tehsils or Towns shall be all members of the Union Councils in a Tehsil or Town. It is the responsibility of the Chief Election Commissioner to organize and conduct these elections.

First local government election was held in 1959 under the dictatorship of ayub khan. second local government election was held in 1979 under the dictatorship of general zia ul haq. third local government election was under right after the cope of Pervaiz Musharaf in 2000, and finally first time in history of Pakistan local body election held in Pakistan on December 7, 2013. Balochistan was the province where LBTemplate:Description needed Polls held. Punjab, Sindh and KP are all set to conduct the polls. These first time BD Election held due to the immense pressure of new merging political power of PTI on the central government of PMLN.

Methods of Voting Qualification[edit]

Qualification for membership of the Parliament[edit]

A person who is a citizen of Pakistan, is enrolled as a voter in any electoral roll under the Electoral Rolls Act 1974 and in case of National/Provincial Assemblies is not less than 25 years of age and in case of Senate not less than 30 years of age, is of good character and is not commonly known as one who violates Islamic injunctions, has adequate knowledge of Islamic teachings and practices, obligatory duties prescribed by Islam as well as abstains from major sin, is sagacious, righteous and non-profligate, honest and ameen, has not been convicted for a crime involving moral turpitude or for giving false evidence, and has not, after establishment of Pakistan, worked against the integrity of the country or opposed the ideology of Pakistan and is graduate, can contest the elections and become a member of the Parliament or a Provincial Assembly.

Voter Qualification[edit]

A person, who is a citizen of Pakistan, is not less than 18 years of age on the first day of January of the year in which the rolls are prepared or revised, is not declared by a competent court to be of un-sound mind and is or is deemed to be a resident of an electoral area, can get himself enrolled as a voter in that electoral area. The citizens registered on the electoral rolls are only eligible to cast their votes.

Voting registration system[citation needed][edit]

  • For the conduct of elections to the National and Provincial Assemblies, the Election Commission appoints a District Returning Officer for each District and a Returning Officer for each constituency, who are drawn from amongst the officers of the Judiciary, the Federal/Provincial Government and Local Authorities. Returning Officers are mostly Additional District & Sessions Judges.
  • The list of polling stations is prepared by the Returning Officers and approved by the District Returning Officer. No polling station can be located in the premises of a candidate.
  • The list of Presiding Officers, Assistant Presiding Officers and polling staff is prepared by the Returning Officer and sent to the District Returning Officer for approval at least 15 days before the polls. The Presiding Officer is responsible for conducting polls at the Polling Station and maintaining law and order. He is assisted by the Assistant Presiding Officers and Polling Officer.
  • After the publication of Election Schedule by the Election Commission, nomination papers are invited from interested contesting candidates.
  • Scrutiny of nomination papers is carried out by the Returning Officers and nomination papers are accepted/rejected.
  • Appeals against rejection/acceptance of nomination papers are filed with the appellate tribunal, who decide such appeals summarily within such time as may be notified by the Commission and any order passed thereon shall be final.
  • Final list of contesting candidates is prepared and published in the prescribed manner by the Returning Officer after incorporation of the decisions on appeals and after withdrawal of candidature by the candidates if any.
  • Election Symbols are also allocated to the candidates by the Returning Officer according to their party affiliation or as an individual candidate, from the list of Election Symbols approved by the Election Commission. The Returning Officer also publishes the names of the contesting candidates arranged in the Urdu alphabetical order specifying against each the symbol allocated to him.
  • The Election Commission of Pakistan provides each Returning Officer with copies of voter's list for his constituency who distributes it amongst the Presiding Officers in accordance with the polling scheme and assignment of voters to each polling station/booth.
  • Voters cast their votes at specified polling stations according to their names in an electoral rolls. Since the election for both National and Provincial Assemblies constituencies are held on the same day, the voter is issued two separate ballot papers for each National Assembly and Provincial Assembly constituency.
  • When an elector presents himself at the polling station to vote, the Presiding Officer shall issue a ballot paper to the elector after satisfying himself about the identity of the elector through his identity card.
  • Polling is held for nine hours on the polling day without any break.
  • Immediately after the close of the poll votes are counted at the polling stations by the Presiding Officers in presence of the candidates, their Election Agents, and Polling Agents.
  • After counting the ballot papers the Presiding Officer prepares a statement of the count indicating the number of votes secured by a candidate, and send it to the Returning Officer along with the election material, un-used ballot papers, spoilt ballot papers, tendered ballot papers, challenged ballot papers, marked copies of the electoral rolls, the counter-foils of used ballot papers, the tendered votes lists, and the challenged votes lists.
  • The Presiding Officers also announce the result of count at the polling stations and paste a copy of the result outside the polling stations.
  • After the receipt of statement of counts from the Presiding Officers of the polling stations, the Returning Officer compiles the preliminary unofficial result and intimates the results to the Election Commission through fax for announcement on print/electronic media.
  • After the announcement of unofficial result, the Returning Officer serves a notice to all the contesting candidates and their election agents regarding the day, time and place fixed for consolidation of the result. In the presence of the contesting candidates and election agents, the Returning Officer consolidates the results of the count furnished by the Presiding Officers in the prescribed manner including postal ballot received by him before the polling day.
  • Immediately after preparing the consolidated statement the Returning Officer submits a copy to the Election Commission in the prescribed form which publishes the names of the returned candidates in the official Gazette.

History of elections in Pakistan[edit]

Past elections:General elections from 1954 to 1970[edit]

1st elections  : 1954 (indirect elections) = PML
2nd elections  : 1962 (indirect elections) = PML
3rd elections  : 1970 = AL
4th elections : 1977 = PPP
5th elections  : 1985 = PML (non-party basis elections)
6th elections  : 1988 = PPP
7th elections  : 1990 = IJI
8th elections  : 1993 = PPP
9th elections : 1997 = PMLN
10th elections : 2002 = PMLQ
11th elections : 2008 = PPP
12th elections : 2013 = PMLN

Between 1947 and 1958, there were no direct elections held in Pakistan at the national level. Provincial elections were held occasionally. The West Pakistan provincial elections were described as "a farce, a mockery and a fraud upon the electorate"[4]

The first direct elections held in the country after independence were for the provincial Assembly of the Punjab between 10–20 March 1951. The elections were held for 197 seats. As many as 939 candidates contested the election for 189 seats, while the remaining seats were filled unopposed. Seven political parties were in the race. The election was held on an adult franchise basis with approximately one-million voters. The turnout remained low. In Lahore, the turnout was 30 per cent of the listed voters and in rural areas of Punjab it was much lower.

On 8 December 1951 the North West Frontier Province held elections for Provincial legislature seats. In a pattern that would be repeated throughout Pakistan's electoral history, many of those who lost accused the winners of cheating and rigging the elections. Similarly, in May, 1953 elections to the Provincial legislature of Sindh were held and they were also marred by accusations of rigging.

In April 1954, the general elections were held for the East Pakistan Legislative Assembly, in which the Pakistan Muslim League lost to the pan-Bengali nationalistUnited Front Alliance.[5]Incumbent Prime minister of East Pakistan Mr. Nurul Amin lost his parliament seat to a veteran student leader and language movement stalwart Khaleque Nawaz Khan in Mr. Amin's home constituency Nandail of Mymensingh district. Nurul Amin's crushing defeat to young Turk of United front alliance effectively eliminated Pakistan Muslim League from Political landscape of the then East Pakistan.

Political parties performances in General elections under military government(s)

All data and calculations are provided by Election Commission of Pakistan as Public domain. The General elections in 1985 were non-partisan general elections, but many technocrats belong to the one party to another.

General elections from 1977 to 2013[edit]

After the loss of East–Pakistan, democracy returned to the country. In 1977, the general elections were held but due to election violence instigated by the right-wing PNA, the martial law took advance against the left oriented PPP.

In 1988, the general elections were held again which marked the PPP coming in power but dismissed in two years following the amid lawlessness situation in the country. In 1990, the general elections saw the right-wing alliance forming the government but dismissed in 1993 after the alliance collapse. The general elections in 1993 saw the PPP forming government after successfully seeking plurality in the Parliament. Prime MinisterBenazir Bhutto made critical decisions during her era, ranging from working to strengthening the education, defense, foreign policy and pressed her policies hard to implement her domestic programs initiatives. Despite her tough rhetoric, Prime Minister Bhutto's own position deteriorated in her native province, Sindh, and lost her support following the death of her younger brother. Tales of high-scale corruption cases also maligned her image in the country and was dismissed from her post by her own hand-picked president in 1996. The 1997 general elections saw the centre-right, PML(N), gaining the exclusive mandate in the country and supermajority in the parliament. Despite Sharif's popularity in 1998 and popular peace initiatives in 1999, the conspiracy was hatched against Sharif by General Musharraf, accusing Sharif of hijacking the plane and pressed terrorism charges against Sharif in the military courts; thus ending Sharif's government.

Ordered by the Supreme Court, General Musharraf held general election in 2002, bearing Sharif and Benazir Bhutto from keeping the public office. With Zafarullah Jamali becoming the Prime minister in 2002, he left the office for Shaukat Aziz in 2004. After the deadly 9/11 attacks in the United States and Musharraf's unconditional policy to support the American war in the Afghanistan, further damaged Musharraf's credibility in the country. In an unsuccessful attempt to dismiss the Judicial system, Musharraf dramatically fall from power. The 2008 general elections allowed the PPP, assisted with the left-wing alliance, further consolidated in opposition to Musharraf, though it was plagued with loadshedding, law and order situation, foreign policy issues, and poor economic performances. In recent elections held in 2013, the PML(N) won the majority seats in the elections and is expected to be forming government in last weeks of May 2013.

Political parties performances in General elections since 1977

All data and calculations are provided by Election Commission of Pakistan as Public domain. All elections were contested under a separate electorate system, the 1990 elections had allegations of vote-rigging confirmed by foreign observers.[6] The 'MQM' contested the 1988 elections under the name Muhajir Qaumi Mahaz, it boycotted the 1993 National elections.[7]

2008 General elections[edit]

Main article: Pakistani general election, 2008

This election led to strong showings for the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) (PML-N), who signed the Bhurban Accord in response to the election results.The election was held in Pakistan on 18 February 2008, after being postponed from 8 January 2008. The original date was intended to elect members of the National Assembly of Pakistan, the lower house of the Majlis-e-Shoora (the nation's parliament). Pakistan's two main opposition parties, the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the Pakistan Muslim League (N) (PML (N)) won the majority of seats in the election. The PPP and PML(N) formed the new coalition government with Yosaf Raza Gillani as Prime Minister of Pakistan.Following the election, Pervez Musharraf acknowledged that the process had been free and fair. He conceded the defeat of the PML (Q) and pledged to work with the new Parliament. The voter turnout for the election was 35,170,435 people (44%). By-elections for 28 seats (23 provincial and 5 national) have been delayed numerous times, with most of them now held on 26 June 2008.

PartiesVotes%Elected seatsReserved seats (women)Reserved seats (minorities)TotalPercentile
Pakistan Peoples Party10,606,48630.6%97234124
Pakistan Muslim League (N)6,781,44519.6%7117391
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)7,989,81723.0%4210254
Muttahida Qaumi Movement2,507,8137.4%195125
Awami National Party700,4792.0%103013
Muttahida Majlis-e-Amal Pakistan772,7982.2%6107
Pakistan Muslim League (F)4105
Pakistan Peoples Party (Sherpao)140,7070.4%1001
National Peoples Party1001
Balochistan National Party (Awami)1001
Independents180018
Total (turnout 44%)

Note: Tehreek-e-Insaf, Jamaat-e-Islami, Jamiat Ulema-e-Pakistan, Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan and Jamiat Ahle Hadith did not participate.

34,665,978100%2706010340
Source: Election Commission of Pakistan, Adam Carr's Electoral Archive

Pakistani general election, 2013[edit]

Further information: Pakistani general election, 2013

[edit]

Presidential elections since 1956

Promulgation of 1956 constitution, Iskandar Ali Mirza became first President of Pakistan; he was also noted of being the first East-PakistaniBengalipresident of Pakistan. In an indirect elections, the electors of the Awami League voted for Mirza's bid for presidency in 1956. Wanting a control democracy, President Mirza dismissed four prime ministers in less than two years and his position in the country was quickly deteriorated amid his actions. In 1958, Mirza imposed the martial law under its enforcer General Ayub Khan, but was also dismissed the same year. Assuming the presidency in 1958, Ayub Khan introduced a "System of Basic Democracy" which mean, "the voters delegate their rights to choose the president and the members of the national and provincial assemblies to 80,000 representatives called Basic Democrats."[10]

Under this system, the first direct presidential election was held on January 2, 1965. Some 80,000 'basic democrats', as members of urban and regional councils, caucused to vote. There were two main contestants: Pakistan Muslim League led by President Ayub Khan and the Combined Opposition Parties (COP) under the leadership of Fatima Jinnah. In this highly controversial election with the means of using the state machinery to rigging the votes, the PML secured a thumping majority of 120 seats while the opposition could clinch only 15 seats. Fatima Jinnah's Combined Opposition Party (COP) only secured 10 seats whereas the NDF won 5 seats in East Pakistan and 1 in West Pakistan. The rest of the seats went to the independents.

Witnessing the events in 1965, the new drafted constitution created the Electoral College system, making the president as mere figurehead. In 1973, Fazal Ilahi Chaudhry became the first president from the PPP in an indirect polling. With the martial law remained effective from 1977 till 1988, civil servant Ghulam Ishaq Khan ran for the presidency on a PPP ticket in a deal to support Benazir Bhutto for presidency. With special powers granted to President GI Khan, he dismissed two elected government during period 1990 and 1993; he too was forced out from the office the same year. After the 1993 general election, the PPP nominated Farooq Leghari who soon secured majority votes in the parliament. Originally elected for five-year term, Leghari was forced resigned from the presidency after forcing out Benazir Bhutto from the government in 1996. In 1997 general election, Nawaz Sharif called for fresh presidential elections and nominated Rafiq Tarar for the presidency. In an indirect election, Tarar received heavy votes from the electors of Electoral College, becoming the first president from the PML(N). In 1999 martial law against Sharif, Musharraf self-pointed for the presidency in 2001. In 2004, he secured his appointment for presidency; though the opposition and religious alliance boycotted the elections. In 2007, Musharraf again restored his appointment after the opposition parties also boycotted the elections. As Musharraf forced out from the power, Asif Zardari of PPP became president after a close presidential elections in 2008. The Pakistani general election of 2013 were held on 11 May 2013. Problems with providing electricity was one of the major issues with the winning candidate, Nawaz Sharif, promising to reform electrical service and provide reliable service.[16]

Political parties performances in Presidential elections since 1971

FI Chaudhy becomes president in 1973 with PPP's support in four provinces.GI Khan was candidate of PPP in return of supporting Benazir Bhutto in 1988. Pervez Musharraf gained political support from PML(Q) as their president in 2004 and 2007; both elections were controversial as leading parties PPP and PML(N) boycotted the elections.

References[edit]