In Chicago Style, there are two (2) types of formatting choices. The Notes and Bibliography style, which utilizes footnotes and endnotes both for citing material and also to provide extra information should the author wish to, and the Author-Date style.
Footnote Citations (Notes and Bibliography)
Citations for footnotes will differ depending on the type of resource you are citing. In general, CMS requires a full citation (like in your bibliography), with a few differences in your footnote. Differences include:
- The author(s)'s name(s) will be listed as firstname lastname, rather than lastname, firstname like it is in the Bibliography.
- The publication information will be in parentheses.
- There will be a comma after the publication information, with page numbers citing either your quote or the pages in which you found the information you're using.
1. Barry Estabrook. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015), 15-25.
In some cases, it may be appropriate to use a shortened citation in a footnote. That would look like this:
1. Estabrook, Pig Tales, 15-25.
In-Text or Parenthetical Citations (Author-Date)
In-text citations can also be used to tell your professor which source you used at a specific point in the paper.
These citations also correspond to the full citation found in the Reference List at the end of your paper.
Here are three examples of in-text citations:
- Use a signal phrase and a quote. A signal phrase introduces the author in a lead in a sentence with a quote, and then places the publication year and page number at the end.
- Pollan explains that "the apple, like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American" (2001,13).
- Use a direct quote. A direct quote places the author, publication year and page number in parenthesis at the end.
- "In effect, the apple like the settlers themselves, had to forsake its former domestic life and return to the wild before it could be reborn as an American" (Pollan, 2001, 13).
- Use a signal phrase and a paraphrase. A signal phrase introduces the author in the sentence, and rather than quote the author directly, you restate the author's ideas in your own words. This is followed by the publication year and page number in parenthesis.
- Michael Pollan compares the apple to the settler, because both required an experience in the wild in order to fully express the American experience (2001, 13).
Reference List Citations
The reference list includes full citations all sources used in your paper. This should be organized alphabetically according to author last name. If your source has no author, use the first letter of the title. For the Notes and Bibliography style, this list of references will be called "Bibliography." If you are using the Author Date style, title your list "References" or "Works Cited." Note the difference in the following two examples of where the date is placed.
Example: Bibliography (Notes and Bibliography Style)
Estabrook, Barry. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015.
Pollan, Michael. The Botany of Desire. New York: Random House, 2001.
Example: References (Author-Date Style)
Estabrook, Barry. 2015. Pig Tales: An Omnivore's Quest for Sustainable Meat. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Pollan, Michael. 2001. The Botony of Desire. New York: Random House.
This LibGuide was designed to provide you with assistance in citing your sources when writing an academic paper.
There are different styles which format the information differently. In each tab, you will find descriptions of each citation style featured in this guide along with links to online resources for citing and a few examples.
What is a citation and citation style?
A citation is a way of giving credit to individuals for their creative and intellectual works that you utilized to support your research. It can also be used to locate particular sources and combat plagiarism. Typically, a citation can include the author's name, date, location of the publishing company, journal title, or DOI (Digital Object Identifer).
A citation style dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting.
How to do I choose a citation style?
There are many different ways of citing resources from your research. The citation style sometimes depends on the academic discipline involved. For example:
- APA (American Psychological Association) is used by Education, Psychology, and Sciences
- MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used by the Humanities
- Chicago/Turabian style is generally used by Business, History, and the Fine Arts
*You will need to consult with your professor to determine what is required in your specific course.
Click the links below to find descriptions of each style along with a sample of major in-text and bibliographic citations, links to books in PITTCat+, online citation manuals, and other free online resources.