Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons has been the pioneer in developing post-graduate medical education in this country. Historically, the College bears a heritage to College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan of which it was the eastern wing. It is a unique institute of medical science in Bangladesh that awards prestigious Fellow of College of Physicians & Surgeons(Bangladesh) degree to the medical and dental graduates. 
Following the independence of Bangladesh, the College was recreated as a statutory body by a Presidential order, later on ratified by an act of the parliament, to steer postgraduate medical education of a vastly populated, poorly resourced and war ravaged country. At present, the college has achieved the iconic status in the field of postgraduate medical education of this country. It has definitely been able to set a mark for others to cherish and chase.
The Government of the Peoples' Republic of Bangladesh constituted an adhoc committee of the College with Professor K S Haque as the President in 1972. All fellows of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan who hailed from Bangladesh were admitted as the founder fellows. With great endeavours and untiring efforts, these people were able to hold the first examination in July 1972.
Fellowship is offered in the subjects of Medicine, Cardiology, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Neurology, Nephrology, Endocrinology & Metabolism, Pulmonology (Respiratory Medicine), Rheumatology, Infectious Disease & Tropical Medicine, Dermatology & Venereology, Psychiatry, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Family Medicine, Transfusion Medicine, Paediatrics, Neonatology, Paediatric Nephrology, Paediatric Hemato-Oncology, Surgery, Urology, Neurosurgery, Cardiovascular Surgery, Thoracic Surgery, Orthopaedic Surgery, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Paediatric Surgery, Conservative Dentistry & Endodontics, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Prosthodontics, Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Obstetric & Gynaecology, Otolaryngology, Ophthalmology, Radiology & Imaging, Radiotherapy, Anaesthesiology, Haematology, Histopathalogy, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Paediatric Pulmonology, Paediatric Neurology & Development, Feto-Maternal Medicine, Gynaecological Oncology, Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility. Preliminary FCPS part-II examinations are being conducted for FCPS in specialised subjects.
Membership is offered in the subjects of: Medicine, Surgery, Paediatrics, Obst. & Gynae, Ophthalmology, Otolaryngology, Psychiatry, Anaesthesiology, Radiology-Imaging, Radiotherapy, Dermatology & Venereology. Dental Surgery, Forensic Medicine, Family Medicine and Clinical Pathology.
Examinations follow delicate evaluation and scoring system that are unique to this College. This helps to produce fellows and members with high levels of proficiency to match the needs of medical profession. The final fellowship examination also requires acceptance/defence of a dissertation undertaken by the candidates. To optimise assessment the college has introduced OSPE\OSCE in part-II preliminary and final examinations in partial replacement of conventional oral and practical examination.
Continuing Professional Development Programme: Regular programme aims at updating Fellows knowledge and capacity building are organised under CPD programme. Besides, workshop, seminar and meetings are also held on different matters of interest and contemporary issues.
Exchange of examiners in different specialties exists between the BCPS and the Royal Colleges of UK and also with regional countries like Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand and Saudi Arabia.
The College confers fellowship and membership awards. Fellowship is awarded in three ways: Fellowship through regular examinations, Fellowship without examinations and Honorary Fellowship.
Memberships are awarded on passing a prescribed examination. By now, 111 persons have been awarded fellowships without examination while 187 others have received honorary fellowships. So far 77 foreign nationals have received such fellowships. The total number of fellowships and memberships awarded through regular examinations are 4173 and 2295 respectively.
The qualifications conferred by the College are recognised for the purpose of registration, job, higher education and training in many different countries of the World. Until 2010 the Royal Colleges of Physicians, UK used to exempt the fellows of this College from passing its part-one examinations and allow direct entry into the part-two examinations. The College similarly used to reciprocate the Royal Colleges of UK by exempting its fellows and members from the part-I examinations of fellowship and enrolls for the part-II examinations. The only Fellowship of the BCPS that is recognised in the UK is in anaestgetics. BCPS has similar reciprocity with the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan.
Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons (ISSN 1015-0870) is the official journal of BCPS.
Coordinates: 23°46′39″N90°23′56″E / 23.7775°N 90.3988°E / 23.7775; 90.3988