< - Architecture of the Soviet Armenia
Formation and the formation of new directivity (1920 - 1941) yr.
The formation of contemporary Armenian architecture is directly connected with the formation in 1920 of Armenian Soviet socialist republic. For the Armenian people this was the fact of enormous historical importance.
Examining the historical prerequisites of the formation of contemporary Armenian architecture, we dwelled on basic development stages of the medieval architecture of Armenia. Together with the production of a number of crystalline clean and clear composition structures Armenian architecture thoroughly developed the theme of rock wall, after creating the national school of the intricate of the treatment of stone. Person, who breathed in life in the inert stone and forced him to speak in the language of skill, actually elevated his creation into the category of eternity similarly to nature, integral part of which become architectural monuments. Each new epoch begins from the unhealthy process of preconception, and sometimes also the rooting out of these, if we possible in other words, genetic roots. It is natural that depending on the level of the development of nation and "genetic fund" this process occurs differently. Indeed history has available the examples, when peoples, which created in the past great civilizations and artistic values, today, without being separated by uniqueness, go in the common course of cultural development, since the conditions of life, its requirement occur more strongly. Is not explained this sickliness of reconstruction by the fear of the loss of national uniqueness, which does have special historic importance for the small peoples? Architecture for the Armenians, similar to written language, was the means not only of especially cultural self expression, but also combat for the formation, the assertion and the development of nation, fight for the survival against the foreign conquerors. Indeed the latter, trying to blow up national spirit and to enslave its, destroyed first of all the monuments of the material and spiritual culture of nation. In the first chapter we traced the fact, as repeatedly was interrupted by hundreds years the process of the development of Armenian architecture as a result of the achievement of the country By sasanidskoy By persiyey, Arab caliphate, by byzantine empire, by Mongolians, by Turk- Seljuks. And each time with the restoration of independence began the period of the revival of national architecture, were restored the interrupted temporary connections, as already mentioned, new period began from that, on what the development of previous stopped.
Especially prolonged and gloomy was the period, which was begun with intrusion into Armenia in 1386 of troops Of tamerlana (Leng-Temura), which ransacked almost entire country. Mongolian- Turks in XV v. they replaced not less raging nomadic tribes penalty -Kohnlu and ak-Koyunlu. From the beginning THE XVI century the Armenian earth becomes the arena of infinite wars between Osmanskoy Turkey and Sefevidskoy Persiyey. Turkish historian Ibragim Of pechevi, the witness of barbarism of Osmanlis, he wrote about the fact that Turkish army, after entering in 1553 in Shiraq, ".. razruwila devastated settlements, destroyed and equaled with the earth of structure "[ 14]. Committed atrocities Persians. In the beginning THE XVII century they killed thousands of innocent, were ransacked and destroyed many cities and villages of Armenia, including Dzhuga city. In 1639 occurs the sequential division of Armenia between The the persiyey, to which will move away East Armenia, and by Turkey, which subjected by severe nation- religious and social oppression the population of West Armenia. In spite of the persistent liberation fight of Armenian patriots, this position remains to THE XIX century only in 1828 East Armenia as a result of victorious operations of Russian troops in Russian- Persian war 1826 - 1828 it is joined to Russia, after being freed from the yoke of the Persian khans. However, above the population of West Armenia the threat of physical destruction is overhanging - at the end THE XIX century by the sultan Of abdul By gamidom was developed and began to be achieved the monstrous plan of the universal slaughter of Armenians. Only within the period from 1894 through 1896 perished about 300 thous. pers., hundred it was municipal and villages they underwent devastation and destruction. The most terrible page of its history Armenian people survived in 1915 - 1916, when the lost human appearance Young Turks carried out genocide of Armenians, as a result of which perished more than one-and-a-half million people, among whom there were many outstanding people prominent in cultural matters.
In the separate regions of West Armenia (Sasun, van, Shapin-Garakhisar, Antioch and other.) population showed heroic resistance to barbarians, but forces were too unequal, since sultanskoye government threw against the defenseless people regular army and armed bands of robbers. However, powers of entente, ".. scitavwie Armenian people by their ally, actually they undertook no practical steps for the rescuing of the victims of Turkish Vandals. They limited to the fact that on 24 May, 1915, they published the statement, by which laid on the government of mladoturok responsibility for the slaughter of Armenians "[ 15]. Only with the aid of the Russian troops in the years of the First World War of approximately 350 thous. pers. were moved into East Armenia and other regions of the Caucasus. Numerous Armenians, saving life, moved into other countries of the peace, where, until now there are Armenian colonies.
The years of the First World War lay the heaviest burden on the arms of the peoples of Russia. In the country, as in East Armenia, reigned ruin and hunger. On any active construction activity it could not be and speech.
There was such position in Armenia on the eve of the Great October Socialist Revolution, which showed deep action on the political, social and economic and spiritual development of many peoples of peace, including of Armenian, and of led to the victory Soviet regime in Armenia and the creation of new Armenian statehood.
The process of the origin of new socialist culture began from first Day ofs Victory of October, under the conditions of revolutionary reconstruction of the surrounding peace. With the common endeavor of creative searches, depending on the specific conditions of historical development and contemporary state of nation, this process took the specific forms, which reflect local specific character.
The important circumstance, which had a serious effect on the formation of Armenian Soviet culture, vtom number - and architecture, was the fact that in it participated two generations, whose way to this boundary of cultural development was various. In the 20's to Armenia many already acknowledged people prominent in cultural matters, which realized the prospects, which it opened before their native land the Soviet regime, and returned to it entire its creative experience and knowledge, returned. In the region of architecture they stood on the positions of the wide use of a classical heritage. The younger generation, which arrived into the skill with the revolution or because of the revolution and which possesses the aggravated feeling of new, was the supporter of more decisive reconstructions and innovations.
However, in the sense of especially architectural specific character it is necessary to take into consideration the enormous gap, formed in the development of Armenian architecture between THE XIV and XX substances.
In the 20's in Armenia unrolled large-scale work on reconstruction of national economy, building and reconstruction not only of Yerevan but also, etc. it was municipal and the villages of republic. Among the architects, who headed the construction activity of Soviet Armenia, first, rightfully, is called the name of academician Aleksandr tamanyan, acknowledged architect and public worker.
The basis of the creative concept Of a. tamanyan, together with understanding of the historical mission of architecture in the process of national revival, composed unprecedented positive faithfulness to traditionalism, because of which the people repeatedly preserved its rich cultural heritage. Specifically, so after Arab dominion in X -.khi of substances. "architects... Of Armenia... they caught the ragged thread of artistic development and began to purposely follow the architectural forms OF THE VII century, which became classical "[ 16] (isolation our: A. g. and M. T.).
A. tamanyan and its adherents followed via their ancestors of millennial remoteness. They understood, that first of all it is necessary to return the conquered by centuries sublimity of Armenian architecture, to create for the architectural creation "starting point". Less than in 20 years of the Soviet regime in Armenia was "it was caught the ragged thread" the development of the national architecture, which arrived into the decline even in THE XIV century, and was created the basis of its new revival. Similar traditionalism under the other conditions could be estimated at least as conservatism, but in Armenia it was historically regular. In this case traditionalism came out in the first rows with all forms of skills as the means of national self assertion and lift of in a revolutionary way- romantic national spirit. In article "let us create new, Soviet architecture" A. tamanyan in 1934 he wrote: "... for the development of architecture at present are created sufficiently favorable conditions, to us is given the installation: to study classicism, antique peace, renaissance (epoch of revival) and to create new, Soviet architecture ". And further: ".. u us in Armenia for this are separately favorable conditions. Nature generously gave presents us by the building materials: the diverse forms of tuffs, granite, basalt, the precious species of marble, onyx, jasper, conglomerations and others, which present to master rich palette for the artistic formulation of both the facades and the interiors of buildings. These materials give to us the possibility to create authentic architecture, since when in other countries architects are forced to create various forms of stone from the man-made materials, we have the capability to create architectural forms from the natural material "[ 17].
Before to switch over to the analysis of separate works, let us say that the ratio Of tamanyana to the architectural creation is supplemented by its following statement: "for the bloom of architecture very favorable circumstance is the fact that monumental construction gives the possibility to include sculpture in architecture and decorative painting, thus to make by a participant in the creation of the architectural work of our talented artists and sculptors, presenting to them extremely interesting field for the creation. Interaction of three skills (architecture, sculpture, painting) will lead to the bloom of architecture "[ 18]. Clear and clear concept.
Laws governing traditionalism of that period are caused also by prevailing, but at first glance paradoxical, by the interdependence of this traditionalism and ruling in those years in the country "new", as is customary to call, konstruktivistsko-funktsionalisticheskikh directions. If in the declarations published "new" criticized the traditionalism of forms and the archaicness of thinking "classicists", then in questions of the methods of building they were "stepsons" in the traditional construction production.
In reality their buildings were constructed in the stone-, frequently imitating new aesthetical aspirations. From other side, the representatives of this direction in the architecture of Soviet Armenia, attempting to rethink some ideas of constructivists and funktsionalistov on the concrete soil, searched for the manifestations of the national uniqueness of architecture in the people architecture, on which in many aspects rested architectural classics. But Traditsionalisty, although they were charged with the stylization, were during this period more sequential in a question of the organic nature of the architectural forming, determined by real constructions and methods of building.
Specifically, by the degree of correlation of the directions indicated is explained stability and continuity of the conceptual development of the creative directivity of the Armenian Soviet architecture, which expresses its dynamic unity. The constructivism of the 20th is annual in Armenia it is painted shityu materializovannost'yu and lyricism of traditionalism and, on the contrary, traditionalism of the 30th is annual - by the innovations of contemporary architecture. As we will be convinced in the subsequent chapters, this continues and at present. Furthermore, that a similar interrelation in the ethical plan can be evaluated as the manifestation of high humaneness, the degree of correlation of their separate shaping beginnings and composition methods, they objectively ensured the necessary harmony of buildings in the architectural medium. Are such the buildings of small area in cinema "Moskva", blocks of residential area for the workers of plant SK, northern section ul. Nalbandyana in Yerevan, the building of the area im. the May uprising in Leninakan. It is evident based on examples that the dictated by life rationalistic beginnings are frequently powerless to choke the basis of the prevailing by centuries spiritual culture of people and that in the course of time all best works of Armenian architecture, independent of sharpness and novelty of the ideas concluded in them (but this it was also into the Middle Ages), are erected into the ordered system. Not this whether the phenomenon of the Armenian architecture, whose national uniqueness was always based at the deep processes of psychological nature?
In the large-scale construction activity the production of the specific town-building positions plays fundamental importance. And A. tamanyan not by chance beginnings from the development of the general plan of Yerevan, which was in 1924 affirmed by the government of young republic.
Before to generalize the principles, placed As a. tamanyan over the long term for the development of city, let us pause at the basic condition of the first general plan of socialist Yerevan, on which was planned an increase in the population from 60 to 150 thousand man.
In accordance with the full-scale plan of Yerevan, executed in 1906 - 1911, the main streets of city are directed from the northeast to the southwest. Between the basic nucleus of city and the gorge of river it is distributed it were located Yerevan fortress. City had many orchards and vineyards, whereas the slopes of the surrounding elevations were bare. In essence Yerevan was build ot by the clay houses, in general medium of which were separated numerous one- two-story stone buildings, several churches and mosques.
In the basis the developments of the first general plan of socialist Yerevan, on the assertion of the author himself, are used ".. prinqip and the form of garden city as the best example and the most successful method in the new town building "[ 19]. On the basis of the conditions of locality and existing system of mains A. tamanyan accepted the radial- annular system of planning with compiling of the new composition axis of city the "north - the south". The central core of city girded by avenue ring.
Reference to the "garden city" in this case is sufficiently conditional, in spite of the great authority of the author. The principles, placed By a. tamanyan as the basis of the designed by it general plan of Yerevan, besides the generality of name and several incomplete annular streets have nothing general with the social- reformist ideas Ebenizera of Howard, presented in the book "garden cities", published in 1897 they completely differ, also, from realized in the beginning THE XX century of the garden cities Of lechvort, Uel'vin (England), Khellerau (Germany) and other, carrying on themselves press characteristic contradictions, inherent in capitalist society. The govardovskaya idealization of the rural structure of life under the conditions of capitalist city could not be acceptable under the new social conditions of the development of our society especially because Yerevan was formed as the capital of republic, its administrative, industrial and cultural center with all escaping from these functions consequences. However, the desire to create as far as possible the planted greenery city, surrounded by gardens and parks, completely corresponded to the natural climatic conditions of the territory, in which was planned the development of Yerevan.
After preserving the historically prevailing network of the streets of center, A. tamanyan at the same time provided the radical reconstruction of the organism of old city and its promising development on the base of new political and social and economic conditions.
The building of the units of civil housing designation was provided for in accordance with the zoning of city in his basic nucleus within the limits of avenue ring. Actually city was located between the gorge of river it was distributed and those envelopped with its semiring from the north, the northeast and the east by elevations in the form of natural amphitheatre. Industrial zone was located south of residential in the more flat terrain (taking into account the direction of those ruling it was wind). Beyond the limits of avenue ring in the northern part of Yerevan was planned the creation of the student town, in composition center of which the square with the observatory of State University was designed and territories for the building of institute complexes were reserved.
Thus, in accordance with the general plan was provided the clear functional zoning of territory, which emanates from the special features of natural climatic conditions. In tracing of plan itself clearly is outlined organic vpisaniye of city into the natural medium of environment taking into account the prevailing structure. However, compiling new composition axis the north - the south three-dimensional city as a whole and its building to ararat.
In the center of the planning composition of Yerevan the creation of the main administrative and public area, which bears V. i. Lenin's, was planned name. The basic arteries of city were reduced to it and from it dispersed the entire system of areas - in the northern and southwestern directions. On the principal axis of area it was provided for to erect monument To v. i. Lenin, whose building was realized in 1940.
Connection with the theatrical area located from the north had to be achieved through the northern prospectus. In the southwestern direction from the area im. V. i. Lenin was pulled the avenue, which is completed By s. shaumyan's area. Was revealed the space of building, also, to the south from the area im. V. i. Lenin, on the spot of the joint of annular avenue and radial streets, which go from the center how was emphasized the composition directivity of the planning solution of general plan.
The main prospectus, which passes in immediate proximity of the area of the name Of v. i. Lenin and three-dimensional with it, intersected the central core of city from northwest to the southeast. The avenue was projected on its axis.
Despite the fact that the expansion of some streets directly in the central core of city was planned, A. tamanyan's tendency toward the retention of the separate buildings, put into use to the assertion of general plan, actually led to the creation in this zone of small blocks, with the area 0,5 - 3 GA.
The adopted radial- annular system of planning made it possible to create the convenient interrelations between all city districts and organically to be entered in the natural amphitheatre, formed by the slopes Of the yorkskyyo, Kanakerskyyo and Saritagskyyo plateau.
A. tamanyan, well familiar with the Russian and world town-building practice, he wrote in defense of his ideas: "city must have a center and several regions, which must be located so that by the annular streets, by the shortest way they would be connected with each other and so that it would be it is easy to ensure the communication with the center of city. For reasons of public health the city must have annular green lights without the structures, the so-called "light cities", through which pure air would reach its center "[ 20].
To an improvement in the natural climatic conditions of Yerevan was given special attention. The total the area of green cultivations on the general plan reached 140 GA with the isolation under the public verdure to 15% of territory of city. The uniform distribution of the planted greenery territories in the urban organism was planned for the purpose of compiling the corresponding sanitary-hygenic conditions and level of improvement. The largest massifs of green cultivations it was planned to create in the gorge of river it was distributed, in the region of Komsomol lake, on the slopes surrounding city. Active role in the formation of urban view was assigned and to the aqueous surfaces (lake in the gorge of river it was distributed, Komsomol lake, a number of smaller water basins), whose significance is especially great under the conditions of dry Yerevan climate, in the first general plan of Yerevan is given serious attention to vosprosam of the creation of the necessary direct and visual communications with the natural medium. Appeared this in compiling of the composition axis of city the north - south, oriented to ararat, annular avenue, the disclosure of prospects to Aragats, in the adopted system of re-planting the urban streets, whose normative width was overstated to y0m. the noted system of ring mains, which covers city and which is revealed only in the southwestern direction, i.e. it was distributed to the side of historical Yerevan fortress and gorge of river; it was also dictated by the landscape of territory.
Anticipating events, let us say that the development of the center of Yerevan in the southwestern direction and during our days in many respects is predetermined by the ideas, placed in the first general plan of city. In this part the system of the areas of different configuration, which rises from from the area im. V. i. Lenin, was provided for. A southwestern trend in development of center was planning supported the creation of radial streets to the side Of konda and southern city district. Finally, it was attached by the clearly intersecting center main prospectus, which emerges to the gorge of river it was distributed.
Attentive, creative relation to the natural medium, making of the planning and three-dimensional decisions, which escape from the special features of the natural conditions of territory, ansamblevyy approach to the solution, it seemed, of local architectural problems - all these and other characteristic features of Armenian architecture were used in the new general plan of Yerevan in combination with the experience of town-building classics.
General plan of 1924 had, however, and separate deficiencies.
With the zoning of city industrial and residential zones, in our opinion, were excessively approximating each other. Tendency toward the retention of the prevailing system of streets led to shaping of the nucleus of the residential zone of city by small blocks. These questions actively noting the need for the revision of general plan, he wrote: "present Yerevan must be constructed, after subjecting to some improvements the existing project of planning (for example: to combine small sections into the large habitable complexes, in consequence of which will be reduced the area of streets, etc.), to end home construction activity south of annular avenue to the side of station and entire this territory to lead under the industrial construction... "[ 21]. Soundly raising a question of the need of coarsening the residential sections in the center of city, M. mazmanyan proposed, however, the excessive approximation of industrial region to a residential zone of city, that it is more without the creation of the protective belts of green cultivations. A. tamanyan, as already mentioned, outlined in principle correct zoning, but it did not provide in proper time between them the necessary sanitary-protection break. This moment negatively affected in practice of the building of Yerevan during the subsequent years and led to the confluence of the industrial and residential territories of city.
Let us note one additional circumstance. The new composition axis of Yerevan the north - the south did not find the clear [ planning solution not only in the general plan of 1924, but also in all those following how is confirmed the complexity of gradostroitel'nry ' the problem, connected with the realization of the so-called northern prospectus - the section between the area of the name Of v. i. Lenin and Teatral'noy with area. This was convincingly proven, also, in the process of examining the materials of numerous competitions and custom-made projects both directly to the building of northern prospectus and of projects of the detailed planning of the center of Yerevan, executed in the different years by different planning organizations not only of republic, but also the countries. Attracts attention A. tamanyan's project, in whom the axis the north - the south is solved in the form of narrow three-dimensional corridor without the dischargings.
But as a whole, examining in the retrospective the development of the capital of Soviet Armenia, it is necessary to note,!chto many fundamental positions of the first general plan of Yerevan 1924 withstood the testing by time and they became the basis of the developments of all subsequent general plans. Moreover, where some of its positions (it was build ot annular avenue on section between the rest of Lenin and Kond, it was interrupted main prospectus and it was displaced the composition directivity of the area im. V. i. Lenin by the building of the building of the picture gallery of Armenia and other cases), were disrupted, serious damage to the entirety of the formation of town-building idea, three-dimensional and planning organization of city was substituted.
The influence of the first general plan of Yerevan 1924 is undoubted and of the assigned By a. tamanyan in practice level of town-building culture to the development of the general plans of many others it is municipal, working settlements and the villages of republic. The future development of Yerevan to the side Of the kanakerskyyo and Arabkirskyyo plateau was also they were discussed in 20 more - 30's. Thus, M. mazmanyan, it is provided By a. tamanyan in his preliminary town-building developments for the creation of the new general plan, which it approached in 1935, but, unfortunately, I could not complete because of death.
The work on the general plan of "large Yerevan" with the calculated population in 450 thous. pers. was completed in 1939 by the group of authors Of lengiprogora.
By the new town-building document, at basis of which lay the development of the ideas of the first general plan, was planned the concentric expansion of territories around the created central core with the start in the boundaries of the promising development of Yerevan areas in The arabkirskyy and Norksko-Saritagskyy plateau, by right to the bank of river it was distributed in the region Of dalminskikh gardens, and also settlements of burrows -Malati4, burrows -Sebasti4, located in the western part of the capital and burrows -Butani4 - in the south. Supporting and attaching the basic composition axis of city the north - the south, the authors continued it northwards in The arabkirskyy plateau. The radial- annular system of the planning of the central core of Yerevan remained.
Together with the residential regions new industrial zones were projected in the free territories in the northern and western parts of the city, which during the subsequent years led to the extremely undesirable 1 architects I. malozemov, S. klevitskiy, N. zargaryan and to other consequences, it destroyed the consistency of accepted to this zoning city it created the significant town-building problems, to overcome which with each year it begins herself increasingly more difficultly. Not there was preodolena and the problem of "small blocks". This problem, apparently, by the authors was not posed, which also caused numerous difficulties subsequently.
As the positive moment of the general plan of Yerevan should be noted planning extensive works on re-planting and irrigation of the urban territories: the creation of greenbelt zone on the surrounding center section slopes, the entire system of parks and number of ponds on the base of rivers is distributed Gedar.
The development of promising town-building documents in the first decades of the establishment of the Soviet regime acquired special significance because of the need of determining the ways of socialist reconstruction and development it was municipal and the villages of Armenia.
In the 30's were developed the general plans and two others large in the 30's the general plans were
The economic base, on basis of which began to be developed ancient Of gyumri - Leninakan, was the textile and food industry, and also the industry of building materials, connected from the outputs in the adjacent to the city regions of tuff, marble and pumice.
Initial building, especially after earthquake of 1926, was concentrated in essence in the central region of Leninakan and was conducted according to the projects of building, developed it arkhit. By d. chisliyev.
In accordance with general plan 1932 - 1937 was planned an increase in the population with 60 thousand to 120 thousand inhabitants, and to the prospect - to 200 thousand with the development of city to the north, to the side of the plains territories, situated after the textile combine. This city district was completely diverted under the home construction activity. The expansion of industrial territories was provided for on area between the textile combine and the railroad line Yerevan - Tbilisi. The reciprocal location of the residential and industrial zones of city accepted proceeded also from the calculation of the basic directions of those ruling it was wind (northern, northeastern and northwestern). The combination of the rectangular and radial- annular systems of the organization of territory was assumed as the basis of the planning solution of this part of the general plan. However, in the old city, where complete reconstruction was planned, was planned coarsening residential sections by the association of a number of old blocks. This was crucial point both in most planning structure of old city and in the tendency to bring the individual parts of general plan (northern and southern) to the united scale.
To the historical part of the city from the West adjoined by large massif the recreation park, from which rose from its entire system of planting of greenery in Leninakan. The central composition axis of city the north - the south united both its parts and it was intensified by several urban areas of different configurations, but subordinates to general town-building concept. Completed composition by round area with the fan-shaped divergent from it rays of transport mains. However, for the organic connection between the prevailing city and the proposed new structure in the general plan could not be created, also as was impossible to find the necessary scale (planning and three-dimensional). Koordinal'no changed the appearance of city.
The more real ways of the development of Leninakan were outlined according to the general plan of 1940 with the promising population 120 thous. pers.. The increase of city was provided for both in north and in the southern and southeastern directions with the active start of the stands of green cultivations in the form of avenues, parks and sanitary-protection zones. Large role in the formation of the aesthetics of city and microclimate of its individual parts was assigned to the water areas.
Interesting town-building material was preserved also on Kirovakanu. It testifies about the intensive searches, which conducted the architects of republic for determining the ways of converting Kirovakana into the large industrial center. These are the materials of the competition to the project of the general plan of city declared in 1928, and also several different projects, comprised in essence in 1930- X years. Among them are separated the works Of k. alabyan and G. kochar (1929 - 1930), Of m. mazmanyan (1934 - 1937 yr.) and N. zargaryan and A. minasyan (1939).
On the first of them future Kirovakan in the form of the opened horseshoe was entered in area relief, by amphitheatre rising along the slopes of the surrounding mountains. As a whole the city was elongated from the West to the east with the clearly expressed central main, traktovannoy as the avenue. The amalgamated residential sections with the establishments of the cultural and general services of population were located on both sides from it. The linearly developed public center; also repeating relief, had a somewhat bent form. The formation of residential sections was accomplished by the combination of the small and perimeter (locked) systems of building with the growth of stereo accents from the outlying regions of individual building to to center.
As the basis of the development of planning diagram 1929 - 1930 was assumed the industrial designation of city without taking into account the prospects for health resort development. The significant removal of the existing buildings was provided for by project and therefore its realization in the nature proved to be impossible despite the fact that in it in essence were placed the foremost ideas.
In contrast to the first general plan, on which the city was solved by one massif, by project 1934 - 1937 was planned the creation of three large formations, organically-bound with each other. Each of these regions had its own diagram of the development of planning structure, which escapes from natural natural conditions. After entering the outline of the general plan and its separate elements into area relief, the author found within the limits of old Kirovakana the correct reciprocal location of residential and poomyshlennoy zones, after leaving reserve for further increase of city. As in previous proyektke of planning, the organization of the life of population was provided for in the amalgamated blocks. Was the surrounding forest tract connected with the sufficiently developed system of planting of greenery in the city.
In the center section of the city for the purpose of the association of its individual parts wide annular avenue in the form of polyhedron was created. Significant development obtained the public center of city, designed in the form of oval. The solution of the diagram of urban nucleus, undoubtedly, was planned under the effect of A. tamanyan's ideas, personified in the center section of Yerevan.
In the new general plan Of kirovakana of 1939 were takeed into account the positive sides of all previous developments and the organic connection between the prevailing structure and the planning network of new urban formations was created. In accordance with the tasks of the development of national economy, as in all remaining general plans, city from the health resort was converted into the industrial with the retention, however, of its original functions.
It is necessary to stop also at the general plan of the working settlement Of kafan - one of the interesting and unique town-building works of beginning 1930- X it is annual. Future settlement the author saw in the form of the system of the large residential areas, which include the establishments of the cultural and general services of population, and territory for the building of two new working settlements. Industrial zone was isolated from by the residential active strip of green cultivations. However, the main street, which rises from from the station, being the basic artery of settlement, was pulled through its territory to the public center, where cultural-educational establishments were concentrated. In the project natural conditions were takeed into account and is skillfully used the rich heritage of people architecture, which was expressed in the stepped arrangement of houses on the steep relief, with which the roof of lower house serves as court- terrace for the upper. Settlement was divided into the rectangular blocks with the land sections, diverted to each apartment house. The adopted system created the maximum possibilities of using the territories in the mountain conditions and it was highly evaluated by specialists.
In the prewar period significant work was conducted by architects and, in the region of the socialist conversion of Armenian village. In the organization of agriculture the amalgamated and radical re-planning of villages played important role. That executed in 1925 was one of the earliest works in this region of town building. By a. tamanyan the general plan Of lukashen settlement, whose planning structure was borrowed by the author in govardovskogo garden city. But among the numerous general plans of villages and settlements of this time there were numerous those separating by the uniqueness planning of the solution accepted, which escapes from the prevailing situation and the prospects for development. These are - the projects Of vagarshapata and Sovetashen (A. tamanyan), Of parakara and Noravank (M. mazmanyan), Of noragavit (N. buniatyan), Of arzni, Verin khatunarkha (R. grigoryana, G. kochara), To kamarl (L. manucharyana) and other villages, as a rule, were divided into two parts: production and habitable. The first, in turn, was subdivided into the industrial and economic and the cattle-breeding. In the habitable zone together with the habitable buildings was provided for the building of club, bath, dispensary, dining room, children's establishments, laundry, etc. actively they were introduced into the structure of new village the massifs of green cultivations, which pass to the public center. Unfortunately, the figure of the general plans of many villages had the geometric nature, which testifies about the specific bias of the diagrams accepted and the not always successful coordination with the topography of locality, on which was planned the building. The task of the gradual liquidation of the difference between the city and the village some authors tried to solve by application in the planning of the rural populated places of principles and scales, inherent in shaping of urban space.
Let us pause at one of the successful examples - project of the planning Of vagarshapata (Echmiadzina), executed By a. tamanyan in 1925 on the basis of the prevailing situation (presence of historical monuments), the author used for the planning of the individual parts of the settlement different principles: in the new part - radial- annular system with the clearly expressed three rays, which are dispersed from the central area; in the old - connected with the existing streets planning system, intensified by three-dimensional accents in the form of areas and developed structure of the planted greenery territories around the cathedral and other architectural monuments. Street network of both parts of the settlement was correlated, being united into the general system, in spite of the presence between them of wide avenue. Clearly is outlined in the general plan Of vagarshapata and the desire to create the necessary visual communications, especially in the historical part of the prevailing settlement.* * *
One of the most important and acute problems 1920 - 1930 was the housing problem, to which the Communist Party and Soviet government paid special attention as to the first priority task of socialist building, which requires from architects and builders creative and innovative approach.
The first single-story (thinner - two-story) apartment houses of Yerevan, built in 1924 - 1925, were in the explicit contradiction with the needs of new socialist way of life. Fitted out to the needs of separate families, they could not serve as the base of intensive home construction activity. It is natural that soon occurred the passage to the building of the amalgamated houses, to the typification of separate housings and habitable cells, to an increase in the height of habitable buildings to three-four floors. Being undoubted step forward from the point of view of the composition of plans, these houses still did not leave the narrow framework of the sphere of the kept balance individual way of life.
The absence of special accomodations for kindergartens and creche, not to mention separate housings, forced to adapt for these purposes one of the apartments. By analogous deficiencies was characterized the home construction activity of Leninakan 1926 - 1927.
The adoption of the first five-year plan placed before the architects and the builders new important tasks in the industrial and home construction activity. Their successful solution required new approach to the creation both of the directly dwelling itself and to the formation of the habitable medium of city. But at the same time it was not possible to ignore enormous historical experience and deep unique local traditions of people architecture, which were established in different regions of Armenia. The process of creative search was not of the light. Some architects (A. tamanyan, N. buniatyan) dispatch by means of using the classical heritage in what it is possible to be convinced on the apartment houses along Pushkin's streets (is at present re-equipped for public building), Teryana (after the building of the chemistry department of polytechnic institute), Alaverdyana, Marx, Abovyana (apartment house OF VSNKH) and other two apartment houses, located on the angle of the streets Of nalbandyana and Tumanyana, and today, fulfilling clear town-building function, they bribe by correctly obtained scale and picturesqueness of the facades, located symmetrically with respect to ul. Tumanyana, by the validity planning of the solution accepted (apartment they have through ventilation), and as a whole by picturesqueness of the architecture, solved in the unity with the adjacent space of urban environment.
Individual architects, solving the confronting them planning problems, in the searches for the new means of apartment house was fascinated only by the decorative side of the formulation of its facades, which does not escape are organically from the entire structure of building such the apartment house of trust "ararat" on ul. Nalbandyana (arkhit. N. bayev, 1927), the hostel of workers and employees of Narkomzdrav - People's Commissariat of Public Health for ul. G. gukasyan (arkhit. G. khizanyan, 1927), apartment houses on ul of Engels (arkhit. N. buniatyan, 1927), ul. Pushkin (arkhit. B. arazyan, 1929 g.) and other.
However, toward the end 1920 - to beginning 1930- X it is annual it is constructed and numerous apartment houses, which focus on itself attention by the truthfulness of architectural ideas and forms. Are such the apartment houses Of zoovetinstituta and "aypetshina" (architects A. agaronyan and O. markaryan), the apartment houses of "international" and "Ilyich" (arkhit. N. buniatyan) in Yerevan. On base of the accumulated experience by architects A. agaronyan and O. markaryan is developed the habitable section, which considerably differs in terms of simplicity and conveniences from its predecessors. Apartments in it had yard balconies and they were provide ford with the through ventilation, extremely necessary under the natural climatic conditions of Yerevan.
From the apartment houses, built in these years in the republic, attention is drawn to those designed it arkhit. By d. chisliyev two-story twin-apartment apartment houses in Leninakan. All three types of house, located on the small area, are consonant to each other and bear on itself the features not only of original, but also contemporary architecture. They three-dimensional area, composing the memory architectural ensemble, which organically entered the descriptive system of city.
In 1929 in Leninakan is raised the small habitable complex for the workers of textile combine, comprised of the uniform two-story apartment houses, whose apartments had different collection of rooms (from one to four). It arkhit. G. sarkisyan taking into account of new requirements, and also certain isolation of territory from the prevailing city provided the building of children's establishments and stores. However, application for the building of local black tuff, shaded by the introduction of red stone (pilasters, cornices and other shaped elements), allowed architect to find inherent in the people dwelling of Leninakan coloring.
They were interesting and the first apartment houses, built for the workers of Alaverdi combine in The debetskom gorge according to the project it arkhit. A. agaronyan. Their architecture in the planning and three-dimensional plan proceeded in many respects from the conditions of steep area relief.
Together with a number of undoubted achievements in the town-building practice of that time there were the significant deficiencies, which were expressed, in particular, in the atomization of home construction activity, in the absence of complex quarterly building it was municipal. The perimeter building of small according to the size of blocks, as already mentioned, deprived the possibilities of organizing the system of the cultural and general services of population. Stores, kindergartens and creche were, as a rule, build it.
In the town building of Soviet Armenia 1930 it was noted by the first experiment of the design of separate residential section (for working YerGES), which did not receive, unfortunately, complete embodiment. Realized by building in 1931 - 1932 on ul. Karmir Of banaki in Yerevan three-storied apartment house was named in the people "chess" because of the order of alternation on the facade of lodzhiy accepted. For its design, as they asserted this and authors themselves, was used the experience of rural apartment house. Galereynogo type "chess" house consisted of the apartments, fitted out to the needs of separate families. Taking into account the need of the socialization of the cultural-and-general services demands of inhabitants the authors in the same section together with the apartment houses provided the building of separate buildings for the dining room, the club, kindergarten, creche and laundry.
The project of planning and building of residential area for the workers of the plant of synthetic rubber in Yerevan was the creative development of foremost principles in the home construction activity. In it the architects tried to answer all questions, connected with the organization of the new way of life of population, to complexly solve architectural-planning and engineering problems.
The residential area it was planned to create of eight large residential sections, to which from the north adjoined the recreation park. The adopted rectangular system with the centralization of public services ensured the development of region to the future along the central composition axis. The principles of shaping of region, together with the protection from the negative actions of Yerevan climate, provided for the best organization of way of life. The residential sections, located on the flat terrain, were grouped around the public center, where it was intended to place area, school and club. They had a form of square with the sides 200 m. Into block, besides apartment houses, entered kindergarten, creche, the library- library, store. Each block, in turn, consisted of four equal parts, which have the building locked from three sides. The fourth angle of housing from the side of general court remained free, thanks to which the internal space of small court was revealed to to center block. Residential sections were located at angle to the prevailing winds. A similar building, creating the semiclosed courts, ensured maximum protection from the dust and the wind. From other side, it not was deprived of some shortages, which were expressed, in particular, in the absence of the through ventilation of the courts indicated, not admitted under the conditions of hot Yerevan summer. The specific deficiencies had apartments: narrow corridors, the squeezed kitchen, the absence of tank room, etc.
However, as a whole residential area for the workers of plant SK in Yerevan, especially from a town-building point of view, occupies important place in the history of contemporary Armenian architecture as the first experiment of the creation of the amalgamated residential area.
To the development of the home construction activity of the country and, including Soviet Armenia the determining influence showed resolutions OF THE XV congress of the AUCP(B), which was being taken place at the end of 1927, and the decision by SNK USSR - Council of People's Commissars USSR of 23 April, 1934. "about an improvement in the home construction activity". In sufficiently short time habitable architecture made a large and qualitatively noticeable step in the direction of the balanced package of posed problem. The planning of apartments was considerably improved and was amalgamated the scale of separate buildings and habitable formations, which played positive role in shaping of the ensembles of many streets of Yerevan, Leninakan, Kirovakana and others it was municipal republic. From the habitable buildings, built to Yerevan in the 30's, to the number successful should be carried the houses on ul. Abovyana (arkhit. A. ter-Avetik4n -Avetik4n), the house of professors on ul. Abovyana (arkhit. S. safaryan), the house of specialists in ul. Moskovyan and the house of artists on the prospectus of Lenin (arkhit. M. grigoryan), the house of town soviet for the prospectus of Lenin (architects S. safaryan, A. nushikyan), so-called "Zhilkombinat" on the prospectus of Lenin (arkhit. N. buniatyan), apartment house on ul. Tumanyana (arkhit. O. khalpakhch'yan). It would be possible to continue this list. But it is more important to speak about that which unites them. In the architecture of the majority of buildings this period the invoice possibilities of natural stone are widely used. Their authors actively operate on the facades with accents in the form of balconies and lodzhiy, tactfully using decor. The correctly obtained scale of these four -, is thinner than five-storied buildings, their picturesque architecture they organized the specific space of city, its medium, created the means of such urban mains as the prospectus of Lenin, the street Of abovyana and Nalbandyana.
Is characteristic in this plan the house of professors on ul. Abovyana, in which is skillfully solved the number of functional and aesthetical questions. Concerns this both the planning two- and three-room apartments, which have bilateral orientation, and restraint and the organic nature of the solution of facades. The main facade of house, oriented to northwest, has the wide recumbent windows, which support the horizontal rhythm of lodzhiy. In contrast to many apartment houses of these years for purposes of strengthening the expressiveness of facades in this case the staircases and the entrances are located from the side of street. Their vertical rhythm and proportion they organically supplement and emphasize the laconicism of the main facade of house, lined from purely tesanogo artikskogo tuff.
In parallel with formation and development of town-building culture the formation of the creative directivity of new Armenian architecture occurred.* * *
It is usually considered that "in the post-revolutionary period there was historical motivation of martial forcing back to the second plan in the consciousness of many masters of the culture of traditions, heritage. Turning to traditions, historical heritage began more lately, in 1930- e the years, when sharply came up the question about the need of connecting the innovative experiment with the historical experience and old school and its master as the carriers of this test they appeared for the foreground of creative life "[ 22]. However, in the architecture of Soviet Armenia this process began not in 1930- e years, but from the first steps of its formation and proceeded under the unique conditions, about which went the conversation in the beginning of chapter. The brightest embodiment it found in the Government House of Armenian SSR, whose building over the central area of city began with laying in 1926 of the foundation of the building of the People's commissariat of agriculture. This building not only assigned the scale of the area im. V. i. Lenin, after anticipating as a whole the solution of its architectural ensemble, but also was determined the basic directivity of the architecture of Soviet Armenia in the critical years of its formation.
The solved in the plan in the form of polygon complex organism of the Government House is formed around the internal court. The configuration of building and its composition accents are dictated by town-building situation. Concerns this, both not accomplished by the building in the court of the main volume of building, located on the composition axis of city the north - south and intended, according to the intention of architect, to support it and most developed in the three-dimensional plan with large time of the decorated center section, which emerges on the area im. V. i. Lenin. Powerful arched apertures, accentuated on the spot of a change in the configuration of area (passage from its rectangular part to the oval) tower with the hours, active game of volumes and light and shade, especially in the places of passages, are combined in the Government House with the calmer and restrained architecture of the facades, inverted to the street Of melik-Adamyana and to the prospectus Of oktemberyan. It is not-without-interest to note that in one of v.apiantov of the planning of the area im. V. i. Lenin, executed By a. tamanyan in 1932, ustans of monument To v. i. Lenin was planned in the northeastern part of the area, on the spot of today's ponds, and the space of area, flowing about the monument, organically merged with the main prospectus.
The decorative ornamentation in practice used in the architecture of government revived the early skill of thread on the stone, which found wide support on all subsequent stages of contemporary Armenian architecture. Together with these separate AKTs of facades as separate against the buildings, they merge into the united rock symphony, after giving to construction one of the characteristic best models of Armenian architecture - architectural- sculptural expressiveness.
By the architecture of the Government House A. tamanyan even in the middle 1920- X is annual it lustrously proved the possibility of the truthful expression of the means of the public building of the creative comprehension of the rich heritage of national architecture and classical principles of shaping of architectural space.
Not is less important the role and other public buildings, built in those years in Yerevan according to the project Of a. tamanyan - the theater of opera and ballet im. Spendiarova, planned at first as the people house - also of new according to the designation public construction for the ideas and the people festivals.
In accordance with the general plan of 1924 the building was located on the theatrical area, as one of the dominants of composition axis the north - south how to it were given, together with the Government House, fundamental importance in formation and shaping of the architectural-artistic means of Yerevan. Scale was assigned by its monumental, expressive volume to entire city.
The preserved numerous drawings Of tamanyana testify about the inseparability of talent from diligence, directed toward the search for artistic revelations. The initial version of people house was designed by the author with the winter and summer halls. The summer hall, surrounded by colonnade, adjoined directly the park, which had to serve according to the intention of the author as the foyer. After the beginning of the building of building in 1930 Of tamanyan it continued the work on the project, after combining in united volume two hall - theatrical and concert. In the plan, which has oval form, they are located symmetrically, which was reflected in the stereo solution of building. Two powerful semicircular tiers of building marry not less powerful, but laconically processed stage box. Besides the sufficiently restrained decor realized on the facade, it was planned to complete the second tier by decorative vases and sculptures, which corresponded to the ratio Of tamanyana to the synthesis of skills.
The building of the theater of opera and ballet im. Spendiarova not only bore on itself important town-building function, but also asserted the principles, which the outstanding architect in the process of the development of the socialist architecture of Armenia defended. In the small building of Yerevan Gus -1, built as early as 1923 on the left shore it is distributed, and in the project of pumping plant in the lake Of ayger-lich (1925 g.) A. i. tamanyan for the first time tried to rethink national architectural traditions and to solve new thematics. "in the general composition of the architectural constructions of hydro-electric power station I attempted to use motives of ancient Armenian architecture and local building materials (basalt). The need for the composition coordination of the volumes of construction and planes of their facades with the basaltic cliffs of gorge dictated the most elementary and simplified architectural forms and the rough treatment of the surface of stone. Enriching structural members were tower with electric clock(s), tiled roof, flows of water and abundance of verdure ", - wrote Tamanyan about the the Yerevan Gus -1 [ 23].
Buildings of academician A, I. tamanyan in Yerevan rightfully are counted ".. verwino1 searches for the national uniqueness of architecture "[ 24],
To the formation of the creative directivity of the period of the formation of Armenian Soviet architecture significant influence showed the transactions of the ice-hummock Of toramanyana - the outstanding researcher of ancient-Armenian architecture, scientist- architect. T. toramanyan not only studied archaelogical monuments, he measured the numerous unique creations of the Armenian architecture V -.vii of substances, was scientifically determined the independent place of the architecture of Armenia in the history of world architecture, but also by its numerous works and by publications made all this property of thousands of people and the main thing - by property of specialists, after placing the bases of the systematization of ancient-Armenian architecture.
With the study of historical monuments in these years dealt many architect- practitioners. In their number - Aleksandr tamanyan, who was the chairman of committee on protection and restoration of historical monuments, Nikolai buniatyan (Buniatov) - - chief architect of Yerevan in 1924 - 1938, etc. fighting with the mechanical "mastery" of historical heritage, N. buniatyan called to his study, which, as it counted, ".. osobenno is necessary now, when immense building in the socialist republics of Transcaucasia frequently sins by the mechanical transferring of the types of construction, motives and other elements, which do not correspond to local conditions, climatic requirements, or unprincipledly mechanically copying the methods of historical architecture from the ancient monuments "[ 25].
N. buniatyan built in Yerevan, besides apartment houses, the significant number of public buildings. In their number - hotel "Intourist" (now "Yerevan"), the building of sel'khozbanka and hotel "Sevan". Hotel "Intourist", because of its angular arrangement and composition solution accepted, actively participates in the formation of both small semicircular area and ul. Abovyana. In the architecture of building the strong influence of classical heritage is present. To the big enough degree, apparently, prevailed over the architect means of apartment house added in those years, which clearly is examined on the facades from the side ul. Abovyana, whereas center section is intensified by the coupled columns, which are risen to the height of two floors. But these are united under the craftsmanship of the architect of theme into the one-piece organism; however, architecture is proportional to man and to the space, on which it works.
The building of sel'khozbanka, situated on the area im. S. shaumyan, is characterized by the desire of the author to find in the architecture of new public construction concrete forms and means of expression, consonant to historical Armenian architecture. But desire often disperses from the reality. Despite the fact that the building is completely built in basalt has the significant collection of traditional for the national architecture elements (arch, pilasters, pediments, narrow window apertures, column along the axis of main entrance, etc.), unity of descriptive thinking reaching in it architect did not succeed himself in. The center section of the building located by angle is loquacious and heavy, it does not tally to the architecture of other two facades with their wide apertures and nonscale elements.
On the opposite side Of s. shaumyan's area is located the building of hotel "Sevan", which is characterized by town-building approach to the solution of the problem presented and consistency of the composition accepted, connected with the monument To s. shaumyan - sculptor s. merkurov's tvoren'em and it arkhit. I. zholtovskogo. The architecture of hotel characterizes entirety, accents - are functionally and three-dimensional justified, successfully used different invoice of basalt and tuff. It seemingly asserts the refusal of its author of the principles, demonstrated in the building of sel'khozbanka.
Thus, the creative credo Of n. buniatyan most vividly appeared in such works as hotel "Yerevan", apartment houses at the angle of the streets Of nalbandyana and Tumanyana, hotel "Sevan" in Yerevan. However, the building of sel'khozbanka, built in 1927 - 1930, vividly testifies about the serious difficulties, which stood in the new conditions on the way of the creative mastery of heritage.
Against mechanical approach to the use in the contemporary architecture of historical heritage spoke the representatives of the young generation of proletarian architects - voprovtsy, which proclaimed in their declaration: "we for the mastery of the cultural past, for the study by its method of Marxist analysis, but not for the imitation and the mechanical use of an historical experience in the process of creating the proletarian architecture" [ 26 ]. The organization of the proletarian architects of Armenia (OPRA), created in 1929, without rejecting the national culture of its people, rejected ". . 3kleticeskuh architecture and the method of eclectics, who mechanically copy old architecture, who are blindly subordinated to classical canons and diagrams "[ 27]. In the confirmation of the aforesaid in the beginning of chapter relative to the principles of the connection of young architects with the constructivists it is appropriate to give one additional endurance of the declaration of oprovtsev: "we deny constructivism with its abstract invention, blind imitation and mechanical transferring to our soil the of West technique, without considering the local conditions, real possibilities, by the presence of materials and by economic factors, with his excessive advancing forward in the solution of social-welfare problems" [ 28 ].
The sharpest criticism in 1920 - 1930 underwent the creation Of n. bayev, author of the buildings of State Bank; Ministry of Justice and palace of pioneers.
With the years the representatives of the young generation of Armenian architects began successfully to be turned to the classical heritage of national architecture. Was manifested this in essence in the architecture of the public buildings, based on several examples of which we consider as our duty to stop.
The building of cinema "Moskva" relates at the beginning 1930- X it is annual, i.e. to the period, when by its authors T. yerkanyanom and G. kocharom was accumulated specific experience of designing and erection of buildings, including cinemas (in Kirovakane and Dilizhane - G. kochar, in Alaverdi - T. yerkanyan). In the cinema "Moskva" was not simply developed the theme of two-hall entertainment construction, but was found the clearly expressed new, contemporary treatment of accumulated by national architecture experience of three-dimensional thinking and forming. The composition solution of building escapes from the prevailing town-building situation, connected with the arrangement of the section between the existing urban mains and the small area, to which was oriented main facade. Is expressive and is artistic osmyslenno not only the stereo construction of the cinema, polukruzh'e of foyer of which unites two film auditoriums, but also use of different natural stones of Armenia in the architecture of the facades of the building: all the design and protruding from gray basalt, and intermediate parts of the walls are coated by light yellow tuff. From the side ul. Abovyana the first floor is solved in the form of lodzhii, located before the commercial accomodations. Were organically solved interiors building, especially spacious foyer, which underwent during our days the reconstruction, as a result of which was lost the entirety of the initial artistic concept of the authors.
Armenian architecture was since ancient times characterized by surprising harmony with the natural medium. The complexity of solution of this most important creative problem in the contemporary conditions not only did not decrease, but even it increased, especially in the urbanized space. In this aspect acquires large significance each creative success, to which, undoubtedly, it is possible to carry the wine basements of trust "ararat" in Yerevan, whose western part was elevated is even in the middle of the 30th annual.
The many-sidedly developed in the plan composition of the building of wine basements repeats the figure of the edge of the gorge of river it is distributed, in which it stands. It would be to more rightly say that the building does not stand above the natural break, but it is its artificial continuation. The authors attained accordion with the natural medium because of the correctly heart-felt scale of construction as a whole and its separate parts, revetment of building from rough processed basalt, and the main thing - three-dimensional organization of building, consonant to the powerful shores of rocky gorge. On the basis of this condition, and also from the technological need, all wall the buildings, which emerge to the gorge, are planned deaf. However, the only vertical accent of building - tower with the hours - it is moved aside into the depth of section in order not to contradict against its basaltic stalactites of break. Composition tower is set so that with the perception from the right shore its environment is formed with the building of urban street, and from the gorge are received only the walls of basements. With the large craftsmanship and enormous expressiveness used here decor in the form of known "porticoes with the jugs".
The decorative working of the plane of wall rare on the beauty, the skillful and organic use of motives of classical Armenian architecture, exceptional three-dimensional and color accordion with the stony gorge characterize this one of the best works of Armenian Soviet architecture.
In another creative key is solved By g. kochar the architecture of the house of the creation of the writers of Armenia on the island of Sevan lake. Immediate vicinity to the medieval monuments (churches Of arakelots SV of karapeta), it seemed, had to dictate the more traditional solution, but the author forewent this way.
Understanding, that the success of project, and then also construction itself in many respects predetermines by the selection of place, architect arranged building on the slope protected from the wind, it is considerably lower than the churches. This approach made it possible to preserve the prevailing silhouette, since a strict stepped volume of the house of creation was projected for the stony background of slope. Because of the correctly selected scale and the development of the conchoidally revealed into the side lake of microrelief, the building a good orientation was obtained and it entered into the agreement with churches prevailing above entire island. To the creation of the scale and proportional connection between the recreation center and the natural environment in many respects contributed also the solution of the first two floors, which directly lie on the relief. They are coated by basalt, which harmonizes by invoice and by color with the natural medium, whereas the upper levels, which are read from the lower points of survey against the background of blue sky, are coated by bright plastering. The outgoing in a semicircle verandahs, which repeat briefly the form of microrelief, serve for the method of air and solar baths and survey of lake with the chain of mountains at the horizon. The aesthetical and functional unity of this building so was achieved. Running in forward, let us say that in the middle 1960- X it is annual builders they returned here, now already in the peninsula in order to carry out a new idea of the author - to build the appearing housing of table- drawing room. This building, unfortunately, considerably destroyed initial accordion. It again proved that with the introduction into the natural medium of the urbanized elements, for those more contrasting was necessary the maximum tact, since even insignificant, are at first glance, errors can affect negatively not only the construction itself, but also on the landscape of entire territory. The building of table- drawing room hanging in the form of rock above the coastal zone introduced explicit discord into the prevailing ensemble and natural environment. Is explained this, in our opinion, by the fact that not was found the necessary scale of new building, which, furthermore, it was set at angle to the basic direction of the motion of the relief of section.
Are heavy the proportions of the structural elements, which contradict the problem of developing of light extension volume as this was planned by the author. But indeed analogous creative approach to the problem, but other architectural embodiment was demonstrated By g. kochar in the composition solution, yes even in the entire architecture of recreation center in Dilizhane. Uncommon for those times for Armenia round building rises in the environment of the verdure of thick forests. Rich nature of locality and active visual communications dictated to the author of the printsipraznoznachnogo solution of the facades of building, and in that case the form accepted, naturally, was simplest and clear.
For characteristic examples of the search for new expressive means in the architecture of Soviet Armenia the period of its prewar development relate also the buildings of the club of builders, former geological committee and Gosstrakh - Main Administration of State Insurance, administration Armenergo, medical institute, the pavilion of aqueous station, palace of the book in Yerevan, the buildings of town soviet, hotel and cinema "oktember" in Leninakan, etc. they differ from each other by architecture, testifying about the many-sidedness of creative searches.
Club of builders, located on ul. Abovyana, consisted of two basic volumes, one of which left by its wing on ul. Tumanyana. Despite the fact that both buildings stood in the section independently, they were united under the general architectural- composition and stylistic solution, which is combined with the functional clearness of the planning accepted. Is well the three-dimensional opened interiors of theatrical part (at present after reconstruction - the building of the Russian dramatic theater im. Stanislavski1) are combined with the characteristic for the authors aesthetics of facade, based on the combination of the horizontal rhythm of recumbent windows with the plastic of the surface of wall. Excluding the introduction of any decorative details, they make basic rate in a question of descriptive expressiveness to the game of light and shade of volumes, the cleanliness of the proportions of both the separate elements and the building as a whole, to the design consistency of architectural forms. Analogous approach was appeared by architects in the buildings of geological committee and Gosstrakh - Main Administration of State Insurance, elevated over the area im. Azizbekov from artikskogo tuff, here we again see the combination of the open planes of walls with the straight lines of windows, angular entrances, interesting solutions of functional plan and other moments, which reflect the creative approach of the authors to the projects of the buildings in question. "architectural formulation was realized into that idea in order without the excess decorative elements to give to building the maximum expressiveness of its internal content, after revealing separately both the public establishment (by vertical articulations in the ground floor), and dwelling (by horizontal association of the upper belt of building with a certain protrusion forward)" [ 29 ]. The latter concerns the building of Gosstrakh - Main Administration of State Insurance, whose second floor was intended under the dwelling for the colleagues.
However, in the later buildings, as this we traced based on the examples of the buildings of cinema "Moskva", department store on ul. Abovyana, the wine basements of trust "ararat", etc., the authors continued their creative search, after rethinking the determination of principles and methods of use in the contemporary architecture of the historical heritage of Armenian architecture.
Are noted in this plan by creative findings the buildings of administration Armenergo (arkhit. O. markaryan) and medical institute for ul. Abovyana (arkhit. S. safaryan). Both buildings are solved taking into account important town-building load, which they take to themselves in connection with their position on one of the central mains of city.
Building Armenergo successfully attaches by its volume the free space at the intersection ul. Abovyana with the annular avenue, to what the accentuated solution of angular part, supported by lateral housings, contributes. The individual parts of the building without the damage to their functional content are solved in the united architectural key.
The project of the building of the medical institute, whose part is realized by building at the beginning of the 40th it is annual, is allotted by inherent To s. safaryan's creation by the qualities: by the clarity of the composition solution, by the uniformity of building material and its invoice (lined building from purely tesanogo basalt), restrained by the expressiveness of architectural forms and only in it to inherent emotional attitude. When the overall level of cornice is present, angular polukolonny and deep light and shade of center section not only they emphasize main entrance, but also strengthen vertical rhythm the pilaster of lateral facades. Rosary is functionally justified the figure of the plan, in which all audiences and other training rooms are inverted into the court. The round vestibule of main entrance is especially successful.
The memory means of sport construction is created it arkhit. By k. akopyan. The constructed according to its project pavilion of the aqueous station of stadium "dynamo", whose architecture possessed independent composition, organically entered into the complex of republic stadium. Correctly using locality conditions, the author arranged pavilion on the relief, after connecting him with the pond by means of the platforms and the stairs gatherings, which became unique pedestal for the building. The basic theme of the facade of pavilion is proportionally well found, washed by air and light colonnade with rizalitami. The general key of architecture is supplemented by combination in the revetment of the pavilion of the stone of white and pink it is color.
The complex of the palace of the book on the project was the two-story building with the many-storeyed central volume, locked on the perimeter, oriented on ul. Kirova. Composition solution of facades (realized by building in 1937 g.) it was based on the combination of the laconic planes of walls from the actively developed by theme colonnade, whose part (from side ul, Kirov) in the 60's was already dismantled, after yielding its place extremely nonscale and having nothing in common with the remaining part for many-storeyed "box" from the reinforced concrete and glass. In the same years was considerably more tactfully finished building the housing, which emerges on ul. Isaakyana. We not randomly stopped at this extremely important circumstance, since not only in this case, but also in many others in the practice of contemporary architecture was several lost from the fact that could be of today undoubted interest, especially in a question of the formation of integral town-building ensembles. Returning to the palace of the book, let us note that the preserved facade from the side ul, Teryana leaves the most favorable impression. It is solved in the form of the gallery, formed by the extensive colonnade, intensified at the angle by small protrusion. In spite of the instruction format of separate elements and, in particular, capitals, in the architecture, unfortunately, not there was necessary functional and three-dimensional the unity reached, but gallery seems that put to the volume concealed after it.
However, as a whole the project of the palace of the book in Yerevan can be estimated as the positive test for the way of creative search in the solution of the problems, set before the new Armenian architecture.
Numerous interesting creative findings were also in the architecture of the school buildings, therapeutic and other establishments of republic. They, as a rule, are plotted in the general river bed of searches.
The problem of the creative directivity of the architecture of Soviet Armenia in the period of its formation and development could not but touch completely new theme - the industrial architecture, some characteristic examples by which (building of Yerevan Gus -1 and the wine basements of trust "ararat") have noted we above. Special role in this sense fell to the lot of the building of Yerevan Gus -1 - first-born of power engineering of republic. Should be isolated also architecture of one of the best industrial buildings of those years - sewing factory in Yerevan, built in 1929 - 1931.
Far from all architectural ideas found their embodiment in the life. Part of them reached to the present with the significant changes, another, fortunately less - it were preserved only on the paper (projects of club- theater for working "Armtekstilya" in Leninakan it arkhit. A. kuzanyana, buildings of technical school in Yerevan arkhit. S. safaryana, club in the regional center Of artik arkhit. 3. Bakhshinyana, the projects "of House- commune" for the workers of the Machinery Plant in Yerevan, the club of architects K. alabyan and M. mazmanyan et al.).
Summing up the sums of the enormous work, carry ouied by the architects of republic in 1920- X - 1930- X years, it is necessary to note that precisely the bases of contemporary Armenian Soviet architecture were placed in these years in the atmosphere of truly creative lift and enthusiasm, was created the base, which made it possible to successfully pass all stages of its development. Were on this the complex, at times contradictory way, their errors, but the merit of the chief architects of republic consists in the fact that they preserved in this case their leading positions, noting each creative step in the architecture by the continuous values. The best works of those years until now serve as unique "starting points".
Armenian architecture comprises architectural works with an aesthetic or historical connection to the Armenian people. It is difficult to situate this architectural style within precise geographical or chronological limits, but many of its monuments were created in the regions of historical Armenia, the Armenian Highlands. The greatest achievement of Armenian architecture is generally agreed to be its medieval churches, though there are different opinion precisely in which respects.
Common characteristics of Armenian architecture
Medieval Armenian architecture, and Armenian churches in particular, have several distinctive features, believed by some to be the first national style of church building
Common characteristics include:
- Pointed domes, reminiscent of the volcanic cone of Greater Ararat. The conical or semiconical radially segmented dome or cupola is mounted above vaulted ceilings on a cylindrical drum (usually polygonal on the outside, most often octagonal)
- The vertical emphasis of the whole structure, with the height often exceeding the length of a church
- Reinforcement of the verticality with tall, narrow windows
- Stone vaulted ceilings
- Composed almost entirely of stone, usually volcanic tuff or basalt.
- A composite roof composed of finely-cut tuff shingles
- Frescoes and carvings, if present, are usually ornate and include swirling intertwining grapevines and foliage.
- Heavy use of tall structural arches, both for supporting the cupola as part of the drum, the vaulted ceiling, and the vertical walls.
- Roofs intersecting to support the dome, both in basilicas and centrally-planned churches.
- Sculptural decoration of external walls, including figures.
Classification of Armenian churches
Within the bounds of the aforementioned common characteristics, individual churches display considerable variation which may reflect time, place, and the creativity of its designer. Toros Toramanian distinguished the following classical styles while studying these variations in the early 20th century:
Armenian architecture, as it originates in an earthquake-prone region, tends to be built with this hazard in mind. Armenian buildings tend to be rather low-slung and thick-walled in design. Armenia has abundant resources of stone, and relatively few forests, so stone was nearly always used throughout for large buildings. Small buildings and most residential buildings were normally constructed of lighter materials, and hardly any early examples survive, as at the abandoned medieval capital of Ani.
The stone used in buildings is typically quarried all at the same location, in order to give the structure a uniform color. In cases where different color stone are used, they are often intentionally contrasted in a striped or checkerboard pattern. Powder made out of ground stone of the same type was often applied along the joints of the tuff slabs to give buildings a seamless look. Unlike the Romans or Syrians who were building at the same time, Armenians never used wood or brick when building large structures.
Armenian architecture employs a form of concrete to produce sturdy buildings,. It is a mixture of lime mortar, broken tuff, and rocks around which forms a core against which thin slabs of tuff are arranged in brickwork fashion. As the wet mortar mixture dries it forms a strong concrete-like mass sealed together with the tuff around it and, due to tuff's properties, it becomes harder with time. Initially, almost no core was used in the construction of churches, stone blocks were simply sealed together, but as architects saw how those with mortar cores withstood tremors, the size of the core expanded. Frescos of marble or another stone were often affixed to the side of these buildings, usually at a later date.
History of Armenian architecture
The gradual development of Armenian architecture.
During the third millennium B.C, prehistoric Armenian architecture was already distinctive. The most common feature of this form of architecture was its groundwork, which incorporated many geometrical shapes, ultimately forming a cell shape. An example of such architecture can be found in Nakichevan's Gyul-Tepe. These buildings were approximately 6–7 metres wide and 5 or so high.
Urban architectural traditions, and other forms of art in the years before Christ continued to develop and later were partily influenced by Greco-Roman art. Urartian architecture is known for its use of intricately cut rocks, used as foundations for mud brick buildings, usually constructed in a compact manner (such as in Erebuni).
Urartian temples had massive stone walls at lower levels and a relatively small interior space, usually square, and rose high; they were generally placed at the highest point of a site. Higher levels were in mud brick, which has not survived, and it is not fully clear how appeared. The late Garni Temple of the 1st century AD, in a fully Hellenistic style, is the only pagan monument left in any sort of complete state in Armenia, as many others were destroyed or converted to Christian places of worship under Tiridates III of Armenia. Garni includes local elements of sacred numerology and geometry. The temple has a column to inter column ratio of 1/3 (1 is the primary number of the universe and 3 is the holiest of all numbers as it represents the Greco-Roman triad Jupiter, Juno and Minerva). Aside from being aesthetically beautiful, Garni's design can be seen as being a reaffirmation of the universal laws that governed man's destiny. The angles, number of columns, and dimensions were created with a careful eye; Armenian pagans wanted to appease the gods and protect humanity from their wrath. This sacred geometry is evident in the entire temple. To the people who created it, it was the perfect embodiment of their communion with the universe. Note that although sacred geometry was mostly used in religious buildings, secular buildings adopted some aspects of it.
Christianity's institution as Armenia's official religion in 301 allowed new developments in Armenian architecture, which nevertheless preserved older traditions. In fact it would be almost impossible to find any religion that rose completely on its own without borrowing some traditions from the past. Exploring Armenian churches is critical to our understanding of Medieval Armenia. Beyond that, the Armenian churches describe us the general landscape of the Christian East at a time when eyewitness accounts were exceedingly rare. In their messages of authenticity and legitimacy, the churches shaped and preserved public memory, negotiating among diverse linguistic, religious, political, and ethnic groups.
The first Armenian churches were built on the orders of St. Gregory the Illuminator, and were often built on top of pagan temples, and imitated some aspects of Armenian pre-Christian architecture.
Periods in Armenian architecture
Classical and Medieval Armenian Architecture is divided into four separate periods.
The formative period
The first Armenian churches were built between the 4th and 7th century, beginning when Armenia converted to Christianity, and ending with the Arab invasion of Armenia. The early churches were mostly simple basilicas, but some with side apses. By the 5th century the typical cupola cone in the center had become widely used. By the 7th century, centrally-planned churches had been built and a more complicated niched buttress and radiating Hrip'simé style had formed. By the time of the Arab invasion, most of what we now know as classical Armenian architecture had formed.
From the 9th to 11th century, Armenian architecture underwent a revival under the patronage of the Bagratid Dynasty with a great deal of building done in the area of Lake Van, this included both traditional styles and new innovations. Ornately carved Armenian Khachkars were developed during this time. Many new cities and churches were built during this time, including a new capital at Lake Van and a new Cathedral on Akdamar Island to match. The Cathedral of Ani was also completed during this dynasty. It was during this time that the first major monasteries, such as Haghpat and Haritchavank were built. This period was ended by the Seljuk invasion.
From the 12th to 14th century under the Zakarid dynasty saw an explosion in the number of monasteries built, including Saghmosavank Monastery, the Akhtala monastery, Kaymaklı Monastery, Kecharis Monastery and Makaravank Monastery. Monasteries were institutes of learning, and much of medieval Armenian literature was written in this time period. The invasion of Timurlane and the destruction of Cilician Armenia ended architectural progression from another 250 years.
The last great period in classic Armenian construction was under the Iranian SafavidShahs, under which a number of new churches were built, usually at existing holy sites such as Etchmiadzin as well as in diaspora communities like New Julfa.
Armenian architecture experienced a huge stage of development during the 19th century, when the Russians entered Eastern Armenia. A number of architectural masterpieces were built in Alexandropol and Erivan, as well in Kars, which is now a part of the Republic of Turkey.
The Armenian buildings of that time were mainly made of basalt, therefore those buildings were mainly of black color.
Gallery of Armenian architecture of the 19th century
One of the most prolific architects of Armenian architectural monuments in the 20th century was Baghdasar Arzoumanian. Based in Yerevan, Armenia, he was the author of an immense number of civil and church buildings along with other designs. The legendary architects of the 20th century were Alexander Tamanyan, Rafael Israyelyan, G. Kochar, E. Tigranyan, S. Safaryan, etc. Today the masters of Armenian architecture are S.Gurzadyan, S. Kalashyan, L. Khristaforyan, R. Asratyan etc.
Devastation of Armenian architecture
As a result of Anti-Armenianism, relics of Armenia's past such as churches, cemeteries and khachkars in neighboring countries have been subject to devastation. In certain cases such as in Turkey or Azerbaijan, this had been as a result of national campaigns to eradicate traces of the Armenian people to thwart any potential claims by the Armenian state.
The largest collection in the world was formerly to be found at the ruins of Old Jugha in Nakhichevan (today's Azerbaijan). Reports (see RFE/RL) and photographs from observers in Iranian territory emerged at the end of 2005 showing Azeri soldiers making deliberate attempts to destroy the gravestones. More recent photographs have revealed that the entire graveyard has been obliterated and a military training ground has been constructed on the site.
Armenian architecture in the diaspora
The tumultuous past of Armenia over the last millennium has resulted in the formation of an extensive Armenian Diaspora in various corners of the globe. Armenian communities seeking to keep the traditions of their homeland, influenced the architectural vernacular of Armenian Quarters in cities such as Zamość and L'viv. This influence is most evident in the sacred architecture of churches built by the Armenian community, where designs based on historic landmarks such as the cathedrals of Ani, Zvartnots and Etchmiadzin have been used as inspirational templates to construct these structures in their new surroundings. This tradition still continues into the present day as Armenian immigration has shifted away from the traditional areas of outmigration in Europe and the Middle East into the Americas and Australia.
Khachkars have also become additional signifiers of Armenian identity and have been erected in recent year in cities such as Wrocław, Kraków, Elbląg in Poland, Novi Sad in Serbia, Beirut in Lebanon as well as in Dearborn, Michigan. Many of these were also built as memorials by these local communities as memorials commemorating the Armenian Genocide.
- Examples of contemporary Armenian religious architecture
Saint Gregory the Illuminator - Saint Elie (Eghishe) Armenian Catholic Cathedral (1909) in downtown Beirut, Lebanon
Interior of St. Gregory The Illuminator Church of Cairo
Holy Cross Church (Sourp Nshan) in downtown Beirut, Lebanon, adjacent to the Grand Serail
Holy Mother of God Church (Sourp Asdvadzadzin) at the Armenian Seminary in Bikfaya, Lebanon
Saint Paul Armenian Church (1979) in Fresno, California
The Saint Gregory the Illuminator Armenian Catholic Church (2001) in Glendale, California
The Saint Gregory of Narek Cathedral (2005) in Vanadzor, Armenia
20th century secular buildings in Armenia
- History of Armenian Architecture:Volume 1
- ^Patrick Donabedian, Jean-Michel Thierry, "Armenian Art", New York, 1989, p29-30
- ^Vazken Lawrence Parsegian, 1996
- ^ abcdefArchitecture, Arts of Armenia (c) Dr. Dickran Kouymjian , Armenian Studies Program, California State University, FresnoArchived December 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- ^ abcdeArmen, Garbis (1992), An Architecture of Survival, p. 71, ISBN 0-9695988-0-7
- ^ abArchitecture of Armenia - Tourist Guide: Tourism Armenia
- ^ abSacred Geometry and Armenian Architecture | Armenia Travel, History, Archeology & Ecology | TourArmenia | Travel Guide to Armenia
- ^Building churches in Armenia: art at the borders of empire and the edge of the canon | Art Bulletin, The | Find Articles at BNET.com[dead link]
- ^Armenia, Past and Present; Elisabeth Bauer, Jacob Schmidheiny, Frederick Leist , 1981
- ^Azerbaijan famous medieval cemetery vanishes