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Neutralisation Reaction Coursework

Investigating a Neutralisation Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide

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Investigating a Neutralisation Reaction Between Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide

To investigate a neutralisation reaction I must know all the factors
that affect it in order to investigate in this.

Here are all the factors;

Temperature - This will defiantly affect an exothermic or endothermic
reaction.

Concentration - If the solution is made more concentrated it means it
contains more particles of reactant, therefore more collisions are
likely and an result of this is that the temperature will decrease
because bonds are being made.

Type of Acid - Different acids all have different properties and can
cause different temperatures.

Type of Alkali - This is the same as the type of acid but instead the
different properties of an alkali.

Type of Reaction - Different type of reactions will either be
exothermic or endothermic. Example of this is a combustion reaction,
which is exothermic because of the heat it gives out.

These are the factors that will affect a neutralisation reaction. A
neutralisation is either exothermic or endothermic. Exothermic
reactions are the reactions that give out energy and therefore the
temperature rises as a result of this. Endothermic reactions are the
ones that take in energy from the surrounding and cause the
temperature to decrease as a result of this.

Making and breaking bonds either require energy or give out energy.
When breaking bonds it requires energy, which means it's a endothermic
reaction because the heat in the surrounding is absorbed to break the
chemical bond. When making bonds it gives out energy due to the
reaction that has been taken place and means that it's an exothermic
reaction.

Every reaction that happens will either give out energy or take in
energy due to the type of reaction. The reason for this is because it
needs the energy or gives out the energy.

To tell weather it is an exothermic or endothermic reaction a
thermometer can be used to indicate what type of reaction it is. If
the temperature increases it means it is a exothermic reaction and if

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Related Searches

Neutralisation Reaction         Hydroxide         Hydrochloric Acid         Sodium         Alkali         Breaking         Decrease         Bonds        




the temperature decreases it means it's a endothermic reaction.

During these reactions, energy is transferred. This can be shown on a
energy level diagram.



Exothermic energy level diagram
===============================

Reactants

[IMAGE][IMAGE]

Products

[IMAGE][IMAGE][IMAGE] Energy

DH is negative

Reaction pathway

DH is the symbol for the change in energy in a chemical reaction. This
diagram shows that DH is negative for exothermic reactions. It shows
that the reactants have more energy than the products because its
making bonds and means that the reactants give out lots of energy.


Endothermic energy level diagram

[IMAGE]




Energy

DH is positive

Reaction pathway

This diagram shows DH is positive for endothermic reactions. It also
shows that the products have more energy than the reactants because it
gives out energy when breaking bonds.

For this investigation I will be doing a neutralisation reaction. The
neutralisation reaction will need an acid and an alkali to be reacted
together. This will produce a salt and water.



Acid + Alkali ® Salt + water
============================

The acid I will decide to use is hydrochloric acid. The alkali I will
use is sodium hydroxide. I will react these two together in a
polythene cup and record the temperature to tell weather it's an
exothermic or endothermic reaction.

The factor I will choose to vary is the concentration of the
hydrochloric acid. To keep this a fair test I will have to keep the
other the factors constant. The temperature will remain constant by
using the room temperature (25°c). The concentration of the sodium
hydroxide will be constant. I will only use one type of acid, which is
hydrochloric acid and one type of alkali, which is sodium hydroxide.
The only factor that will vary is the concentration of the
hydrochloric acid by diluting it with water in order to investigate in
this.

I will collect the apparatus needed to start my investigation. A
diagram of the experiment will need to be drawn and from this I can
then set up the experiment to start collecting evidence.

When a detailed diagram is drawn of the experiment I can then be able
to collect evidence. To collect my evidence needed I will need to have
the same volume of acid and alkali each time. Both the acid and alkali
will measure 10cm3 each time. The two solutions will both be poured in
a polythene cup to measure the temperature of the solutions when
reacting. Before the acid and alkali react together I will obtain both
their temperatures and then react them together.

To measure the hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide a measuring
cylinder will be used. A polythene cup will be used because it is a
good insulator of heat and therefore when the reaction occurs heat
will not be lost to the surrounding. A thermometer is used to measure
the temperature to help me find out weather the reaction is exothermic
or endothermic.

Apparatus list

* Polythene cup

* Measuring cylinder

* Beaker

* Thermometer

* Stopwatch


Diagram
-------

[IMAGE]




Hydrochloric acid and Sodium hydroxide

[IMAGE][IMAGE] Thermometer

[IMAGE]

[IMAGE]




Stopwatch Polythene cup

The apparatus will be collected and set up as indicated form the
diagram. Once the experiment is set up and ready to go I can then
start to collect the evidence needed for my investigation. When I
measure the hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide in a separate
measuring cylinder then they will be put together in the polythene cup
to react. The thermometer will be put inside to measure the
temperature of the energy transfer. The hydrochloric acid will measure
10cm3 and be poured into a beaker. I will record its temperature for
two minutes and do the same method for the sodium hydroxide. Then they
will be poured together to react.

Fair test

To keep this investigation fair, I must vary the temperature and keep
the other factors constant. Separate measuring cylinders were used.
One was used for the hydrochloric acid, another used for the sodium
hydroxide and the last one for the water. The acid and alkali both
measure 10cm3 each time.

Safety

While doing this experiment safety precautions must be taken
seriously:

* During the experiment I stood up in case of any accidents.

* Goggles were worn in case of any acid or alkali splashed into my
eye.

* Any bags or coats were put aside.

The evidence I am planning to obtain is weather a neutralisation
reaction is affected by concentration. The hydrochloric acid will be
diluted to make the concentration weaker. I will use a 1.0 molar
hydrochloric acid and dilute this.

Here is how I diluted the acid.

Molar

(M)

Volume of hydrochloric acid

(Cm3)

Volume of water

(Cm3)

1.0

10

0

0.8

8

2

0.6

6

4

0.4

4

6

0.2

2

8

Method

1. Collect all the apparatus needed as indicated from the apparatus
list.

2. Set up the experiment by following the diagram.

3. Pour 10cm3 of hydrochloric acid using a measuring cylinder.

4. Pour the hydrochloric acid into a beaker and measure its
temperature for two minutes by using a thermometer.

5. Pour 10cm3 of sodium hydroxide using a measuring cylinder.

6. Pour the sodium hydroxide into a beaker and measure its temperature
by using a thermometer.

7. Pour both hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide into the polythene
cup.

8. Stick in a thermometer to measure its temperature for two minutes
by using a stopwatch.

9. Collect the evidence and record it in a neat table.

10.Do this procedure each time.

The plan I produced should help me get through this experiment nice
and easy, as it has been analysed carefully. To get accurate results I
will repeat the test five times and calculate an average reading by
using the equipment as accurately as possible.

Hypothesis

My prediction is that as the concentration increases the temperature
also increases. A neutralisation reaction will be an exothermic
reaction because its making bonds. Bond making produces lots of energy
and this energy is lost to the surrounding as heat. The reason for my
prediction is because as the concentration becomes more diluted it
will not contain much hydrogen and chloride ions and therefore not
much bond making will occur. As a result of this not much energy will
be created and heat will not be lost to the surrounding. If the
hydrochloric acid is to be concentrated it will contain more hydrogen
and chloride ions. As a result of this there will be much bond making
and therefore more heat will be produced as a result of this. When
heat is being produced it indicates a reaction is taken place. A
reaction between two solutions is when bonds are being made and gives
out heat. These reactions are called exothermic.

To plan this investigation I had to analyse this in more detail. To
achieve this I used secondary sources:

A book called "Edexcel Modular Science".

From this book I obtained some relevant information that will help me
plan my investigation. I also did preliminary work to see what changes
I had to make to my plan in order to have the best plan as possible.
From this preliminary work I decided to use a suitable range of

1.0. 0.8, 0.6, 0.4 and 0.2 molar.

This range is perfect to obtain the evidence needed. I will do five
repeats for each concentration, which will make a total reading of 25.

I have obtained the evidence needed including repeats.

Results Obtained from Neutralisation Reaction

Concentration

(M)

Temperature of Hcl (before)

(°c)

Temperature of Naoh (before)

(°c)

Temperature of Hcl + Naoh

(°c)

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1.0

23

23

23

23

23

21

21

21

21

21

29

28

29

28

29

0.8

23

23

23

23

23

21

21

21

21

21

28

27

27

26

28

0.6

23

23

23

23

23

21

21

21

21

21

27

26

26

25

26

0.4

23

23

23

23

23

21

21

21

21

21

26

25

24

24

25

0.2

23

23

23

23

23

21

21

21

21

21

25

24

23

23

24

From this I was able to calculate the average.

Molar

(M)

Average Temperature of HCL + Naoh

(°c)

1.0

28.6

0.8

27.2

0.6

26.0

0.4

24.8

0.2

23.8

Here is an example how I worked out the average.

1.0 molar

29 + 28 + 29 + 28 + 29 ¸ 5 = 28.6°c.

The results I obtained are enough to help me draw a conclusion. The
equipment was used accurately to get the best possible results. The
range I used was good as I got good reliable results.

The results I obtained were plotted on a graph to analyse the results
in great detail. The results were plotted on a scatter graph with an
appropriate line of best fit. From my graph I found out that as the
concentration increases the temperature also increases. So I can say
that the temperature is proportional to the concentration. A scatter
graph was used because it will show any sort of trend in a clear way
and will allow me to draw a line of best fit. The trend it shows is
that as the concentration increases the temperature also increases.

Conclusion

From the graph I spotted a trend from the line of best fit. The
concentration has an affect on the temperature as shown from the
graph. When the reaction is taking place it is giving out energy in
the form of heat. This means the reaction is exothermic. When heat is
given out it means its making bonds. When a bond is being made it
gives out a lot of energy from the work it's done.

The bond making in the reaction I investigated is when the Na +
(positive sodium) ions bond with the Cl` (negative chlorine) ions.
These two ions react together to form a salt. The H + (positive
hydrogen ion) ions bond with the O` (negative oxygen ions) ions to
form water. This is a neutralisation reaction.

Acid + Alkali ® Salt + Water

Hcl + Naoh ® Nacl + H20

To from a salt the Na + ions must bond with Cl` .

Na + + Cl` ® Nacl

To from water H + ions must bond with the 02` ions.

H+ + 02` ® H20

I know this has happened because it is making bonds and as a result of
this energy is being created to make bonds, giving out energy. The
temperature increase, which is indicated by the thermometer. My
results show an exothermic reaction.

My prediction I made was correct and was exactly what I expected,
which is proved by my graph. My prediction matches my evidence well
enough to say so and means I obtained correct and sufficient results.

Evaluation

My task did work out well. The reason it was good is because the
results I obtained were accurate. This indicates that my task was done
correctly. The method I created was done as accurately as possible
just before starting the actual experiment. This is important because
the procedures must be correct in order to obtain enough and accurate
evidence. Overall my planning was good as I got through the experiment
smoothly and getting the evidence needed, which were fair.

My evidence was accurate as shown by my graph I created and was
accurate enough for the task. I drew a line of best fit, which was
appropriate. From this I found out that my results show a strong
relationship because some points on the graph were exactly on the line
of best fit and some were just off.

As the line of best fit was drawn I spotted one anomaly and this
indicates in a human error. There are a few possible ways that a human
error could of occurred.

O Reading the temperature of the thermometer incorrectly.

O Measuring the quantities incorrectly.

O A mistake in making the concentration.

This anomaly was just off the line of best fit, which clearly means it
is not a bad result but not perfect. Overall the results I obtained
were correct and is sufficient to support my conclusion and
prediction. My evidence is enough to support my conclusion because the
prediction I made was correct as shown from my results.

To improve my method to get more accurate evidence I would change
steps 3 and 5. I would change them to " Pour 10cm3 of hydrochloric
acid using a measuring cylinder and pipette". This change to step 3
would also apply to step 5. By doing this I could measure the
quantities more accurately and obtain more reliable results.

The main problem with this investigation was reading the thermometer
incorrectly. This would have an affect on my results. To over come
this problem I could have used a digital thermometer. This is more
accurate than a normal thermometer. By using this I could get rid of
that anomaly to make it fit in with the line of best fit.

Further work could have been carried out to get additional relevant
evidence. I could of done this experiment with different acids. By
doing this I could see if different acids have any affect on a
neutralisation reaction and if they follow the same rules as the
hydrochloric acid.





ApparatusChemicals

Eye protection

Each working group requires:

Burette (30 cm3 or 50 cm3 capacity) (Note 1)

Conical flask (100 cm3)

Beaker (100 cm3)

Pestle and mortar

Stirring rod

Spatula

Filter funnel, small - about 35 mm diameter

White tile (optional)

Burette stand and clamp

Each working group requires:

Dilute hydrochloric acid of appropriate concentration, 100 cm3(Note 1)

Two indigestion tablets, one of the same brand to be tested by all groups, and another tablet from a range of brands available to the class (Note 2)

Original packets from which the tablets are taken, together with price information for each packet

Methyl orange indicator solution (or alternative)

Deionised or distilled water, about 100 cm3

Refer to Health & Safety and Technical notes section below for additional information.