Skip to content

Effects Of Radiation On Health Essay Topic Ideas

1. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings. New York: Basic Books; 1981. The Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

2. Shirabe R. In: Statistical Observations of Atomic Bomb Casualties in Nagasaki. Shibata Y, editor. Nagasaki, Japan: Showado Inc; 2006.

3. Yasuyama K. In: Collection of Memoirs of the Atomic Bombardment of Nagasaki 1945–55. Yamashita S, editor. Nagasaki, Japan: Heiwadou Offset; 2005.

4. Beebe FW. Reflections on the work of the atomic bomb casualty commission in Japan. Epidemiol Rev. 1979;1:184–210.[PubMed]

5. Neel JV, Schull WJ. The Effect of Exposure to the Atomic Bombs on Pregnancy Termination in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council; 1956. [PubMed]

6. Francis TJ, Jablon S, Moore FE. Report of an Ad Hoc Committee for Appraisal of the ABCC Program 1955. Hiroshima, Japan: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission; 1959.

7. Beebe G, Usagawa M. The Major ABCC Samples. Hiroshima, Japan: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission; 1968.

8. Pierce DA, Shimizu Y, Preston DL, Vaeth M, Mabuchi K. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part I. Cancer: 1950– 1990. Radiat Res. 1996;146(1):1–27.[PubMed]

9. Mabuchi K, Soda M, Ron E, et al. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part I: Use of the tumor registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for incidence studies. Radiat Res. 1994;137(2) Suppl:S1–S16.[PubMed]

10. Thompson DE, Mabuchi K, Ron E, et al. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part II: Solid tumors, 1958–1987. Radiat Res. 1994;137(2) Suppl:S17–S67.[PubMed]

11. Lindee MS. Suffering Made Real: American Science and the Survivors at Hiroshima. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1994.

12. Schull WJ. Effects of Atomic Radiation: A Half-century of Studies from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. New York: Wiley-Liss; 1995.

13. Reassessment of the Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry forHiroshima and Nagasaki—Dosimetry System 2002. Hiroshima, Japan: Radiation Effects Research Foundation; 2005.

14. Reassessment of the Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry forHiroshima and Nagasaki—Dosimetry System 1986. Final Report. Hiroshima, Japan: Radiation Effects Research Foundation; 1987.

15. Cullings HM, Fujita S, Funamoto S, Grant EJ, Kerr GD, Preston DL. Dose estimation for atomic bomb survivor studies: its evolution and present status. Radiat Res. 2006;166:219–254.[PubMed]

16. Status of the Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (DS86) Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 2001. National Research Council, Committee on Dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

17. Eden L. Whole World on Fire: Organizations, Knowledge, and Nuclear Weapons Devastation. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press; 2003.

18. Glasstone S, Dolan PJ, editors. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1977.

19. Solomon F, Marston RQ, editors. The Medical Implications of Nuclear War. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1986.

20. Pierce DA, Stram DO, Vaeth M. Allowing for random errors in radiation dose estimates for the atomic bomb survivor data. Radiat Res. 1990;123(3):275–284.[PubMed]

21. Kodama Y, Pawel DJ, Nakamura N, et al. Stable chromosome aberrations in atomic bomb survivors: results from 25 years of investigation. Radiat Res. 2001;156(4):337–346.[PubMed]

22. Nakamura N, Miyazawa C, Sawada S, Akiyama M, Awa AA. A close correlation between electron spin resonance (ESR) dosimetry from tooth enamel and cytogenetic dosimetry from lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomicbomb survivors. Int J Radiat Biol. 1998;73(6):619–627.[PubMed]

23. Mabuchi K, Fujiwara S, Preston DL, et al. Atomic-bomb survivors: longterm health effects of radiation. In: Shrieve DC, Loeffler JS, editors. Human Radiation Injury. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011. pp. 89–113.

24. Preston DL, Ron E, Tokuoka S, et al. Solid cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors: 1958–1998. Radiat Res. 2007;168(1):1–64.[PubMed]

25. Finch SC, Hrubec Z, Nefzger MD. Detection of Leukemia and Related Disorders. Hiroshima and Nagasaki Research Plan. Hiroshima, Japan: Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission; 1965.

26. Furukawa K, Cologne JB, Shimizu Y, Ross NP. Predicting future excess events in risk assessment. Risk Anal. 2009;29(6):885–899.[PubMed]

27. Preston DL, Pierce DA, Shimizu Y, et al. Effect of recent changes in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on cancer mortality risk estimates. Radiat Res. 2004;162(4):377–389.[PubMed]

28. Richardson D, Sugiyama H, Nishi N, et al. Ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality among Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors, 1950–2000. Radiat Res. 2009;172(3):368–382.[PubMed]

29. Iwanaga M, Hsu W-L, Soda M, et al. Risk of myelodysplastic syndromes in people exposed to ionizing radiation: a retrospective cohort study of nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(4):428–434.[PubMed]

30. Preston DL, Shimizu Y, Pierce DA, SuyamaA,Mabuchi K. Studies of mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 13: Solid cancer and noncancer disease mortality: 1950–1997. Radiat Res. 2003;160(4):381–407.[PubMed]

31. Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR VII Phase 2. Washington, DC: National Research Council; 2005. National Research Council, Committee to Assess Health Risks from Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation.

32. Effects of Ionizing Radiation. UNSCEAR 2006 Report. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annexes A and B. New York: United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation; 2008. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

33. ICRP Publication 103: The 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Oxford, UK: Elsevier; 2007. International Commission on Radiological Protection.

34. Suzuki G, Cullings H, Fujiwara S, et al. Low-positive antibody titer against Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) may predict future gastric cancer better than simple seropositivity against H. pylori CagA or against H. pylori. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007;16(6):1224–1228.[PubMed]

35. Sauvaget C, Lagarde F, Nagano J, Soda M, Koyama K, Kodama K. Lifestyle factors, radiation and gastric cancer in atomic-bomb survivors (Japan) Cancer Causes Control. 2005;16(7):773–780.[PubMed]

36. Cogan DG, Martin SF, Kimura SJ. Atom bomb cataracts. Science. 1949;110(2868):654.[PubMed]

37. Miller RJ, Fujino T, Nefzger MD. Lens findings in Atomic bomb survivors. A review of major ophthalmic surveys at the atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (1949–1962) Arch Ophthalmol. 1967;78(6):697–704.[PubMed]

38. Choshi K, Takaku I, Mishima H, et al. Ophthalmologic changes related to radiation exposure and age in adult health study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Radiat Res. 1983;96(3):560–579.[PubMed]

39. Otake M, Neriishi K, Schull WJ. Cataract in atomic bomb survivors based on a threshold model and the occurrence of severe epilation. Radiat Res. 1996;146(3):339–348.[PubMed]

40. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press; 1990. International Commission on Radiological Protection.

41. Limitations of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation. Report 116. Bethesda, MD: National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements; 1993. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements.

42. Neriishi K, Nakashima E, Minamoto A, et al. Postoperative cataract cases among atomic bomb survivors: radiation dose response and threshold. Radiat Res. 2007;168(4):404–408.[PubMed]

43. Imaizumi M, Usa T, Tominaga T, et al. Radiation dose-response relationships for thyroid nodules and autoimmune thyroid diseases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors 55–58 years after radiation exposure. JAMA. 2006;295(9):1011–1022.[PubMed]

44. Shimizu Y, Kato H, Schull WJ, Hoel DG. Studies of the mortality of Abomb survivors. 9. Mortality, 1950–1985: Part 3. Noncancer mortality based on the revised doses (DS86) Radiat Res. 1992;130(2):249–266.[PubMed]

45. Shimizu Y, Pierce DA, Preston DL, Mabuchi K. Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, part II. Noncancer mortality: 1950–1990. Radiat Res. 1999;152(4):374–389.[PubMed]

46. Wong FL, Yamada M, Sasaki H, et al. Noncancer disease incidence in the atomic bomb survivors: 1958–1986. Radiat Res. 1993;135(3):418–430.[PubMed]

47. Yamada M, Wong FL, Fujiwara S, Akahoshi M, Suzuki G. Noncancer disease incidence in atomic bomb survivors, 1958–1998. Radiat Res. 2004;161(6):622–632.[PubMed]

48. Shimizu Y, Kodama K, Nishi N, et al. Radiation exposure and circulatory disease risk: Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivor data, 1950–2003. BMJ. 2010 Jan 14;340:b5349.[PMC free article][PubMed]

49. Sasaki H, Wong FL, Yamada M, Kodama K. The effects of aging and radiation exposure on blood pressure levels of atomic bomb survivors. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002;55(10):974–981.[PubMed]

50. Wong FL, Yamada M, Sasaki H, Kodama K, Hosoda Y. Effects of radiation on the longitudinal trends of total serum cholesterol levels in the atomic bomb survivors. Radiat Res. 1999;151(6):736–746.

estimated an ERR per gray of 0.33 (< −0.2, 5.8) for women with no ovaries and of −0.2 (< −0.2, 0.3) overall.

A cohort study of second cancer risk following radiation therapy for cancer of the uterine cervix was also carried out in Japan among 11,855 patients (Arai and others 1991). Significant excesses of leukemia and of cancers of the rectum, bladder, and lung were observed. No estimation of organ dose is available.

Hodgkin’s Disease

The large radiation therapy fields used to treat HD and the young age and long survival of patients provide an opportunity to study the risk of second cancer after exposure to ionizing radiation. Most patients, however, in the past 20 years, have been treated with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Following a first report by Arseneau and collaborators (1972), a number of authors have studied the risk of second cancer following treatment for HD (Boivin and others 1984). Initial reports focused mainly on the risk of leukemia following this treatment, but as longer follow-up periods were considered, an excess risk of a number of solid cancers (in particular breast and lung) became apparent.

The results of the first multinational study were published in 1987 by Kaldor and collaborators. The study involved the follow-up (based on 11 cancer registries in seven countries: Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Slovenia, Canada, and the United Kingdom) of a cohort of 28,462 patients treated for HD between 1950 (in the earliest countries) and 1984. Increases in the risk of NHL, leukemia, lung, bladder, and breast cancer were reported in this cohort. No treatment information was available in this study, and no information is provided on radiation risks. Nested case-control studies of leukemia and of lung cancer were carried out, allowing reconstruction of individual doses for the subjects and estimation of site-specific cancer risks (Kaldor and others 1990a, 1992).

The case-control study of leukemia included 163 cases and 455 controls. Radiation dose to the active bone marrow was estimated for subjects who had undergone radiotherapy, and doses were classified into three categories (<10, 10–20, and 20+ Gy). Among patients who did not receive chemotherapy, a significant increase in the risk of leukemia was seen at doses of more than 20 Gy (Kaldor and others 1990a).

Another case-control study from the same collaborative group involved 98 cases of lung cancer occurring between 1960 and 1987 and 259 matched controls (Kaldor and others 1992). Radiation dose to the lung as a whole was estimated for the 60 cases and 275 controls who had undergone radiotherapy, and doses were classified into three categories (<1, 1–2.5, and 2.5+ Gy). Among patients treated with radiotherapy alone, there was a nonsignificant increase in risk in relation to radiation dose level. It is noted that the follow-up was short in this study, with three-quarters of the lung cancer cases having been diagnosed within 10 years of their initial disease (Kaldor and others 1992).

In 1995, Boivin and collaborators published results of a joint Canada-U.S. study of second cancer risk among 10,472 patients treated for HD between 1940 and 1987. A total of 122 leukemia and 438 solid tumors were found, and nested case-control studies were carried out. Significant increases in the risk of cancers of the respiratory system, intrathoracic organs, and female genital system were observed among patients followed for 10 years or more after surgery. Estimates of organ doses were not available, and analyses by level of radiation dose are not shown.

Van Leeuwen and collaborators (1995) conducted a case-control study of lung cancer nested in a cohort of 1939 patients treated for HD between 1966 and 1986 in the Netherlands. Radiation dose to the parenchyma, bronchi, and trachea were estimated for patients who had received radiotherapy (30 cases and 82 controls). A statistically significant increase in the risk of lung cancer was observed, with an RR of 9.6 (95% CI 0.93, 98.0) for patients who had received 9 Gy or more compared to patients who had received less than 1 Gy. The increase was greater among those who either continued smoking or started smoking after diagnosis, and a multiplicative interaction was observed between radiation dose and tobacco smoking.

Swerdlow and collaborators (2001) carried out a nested case-control study of lung cancer in a cohort of 5519 patients with HD treated in Britain between 1963 and 1993. The study included 88 cases and 176 controls for whom treatment and other risk factor information was abstracted from medical records. An increased risk of lung cancer following radiotherapy was observed. No individual reconstruction of dose to the lung was carried out.

Travis and colleagues (2002) carried out a case-control study of lung cancer nested within a multinational cohort of 19,046 HD patients diagnosed between 1965 and 1994 and reported to population-based cancer registries in Connecticut, Iowa, Denmark, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Canada (Ontario). The study included 222 cases and 444 matched controls. Nineteen of the cases were included in the previous case-control study by Kaldor and coworkers (1992). Dose to the specific location of the lung where the tumor had developed (and to a comparable location for matched controls) was calculated from radiotherapy records. The mean dose was 27.2 Gy in cases and 21.8 Gy in controls. In subjects who had not undergone chemotherapy, a significantly increased risk of lung cancer was observed (odds ratio [OR]3 5.9; 95% CI 2.7, 13.5) for a dose of 5 Gy or more. A significant trend in risk was observed with increasing dose.

In a follow-up to this study, Gilbert and colleagues (2003) analyzed radiation effects among 227 lung cancer cases and