Work and organizational psychology is the study of individuals’ work-related experiences, perceptions, reactions, and actions in relation to work matters and organization, individual expectations, and the ways in which individuals comprise and/or interact with groups and organizations. Studies examine the importance of physical and psycho-social factors of the work environment for motivation and performance as well as for career development, health, and well-being. The interactions between the individual, group, and organization are also studied in light of various organizational conditions, including the mutual choices and preferences of organizations and individuals. The focus is often on paid work, but psychological aspects of unpaid work (e.g., in the home, for a non-profit organization) and the boundary between work and the rest of life are also objects of study as well as the psychological aspects of involuntary unemployment. A distinguishing feature of work and organizational psychology, in comparison to other work sciences, is the inclusion of the individual perspective.
Source: The Swedish National Committee for Psychological Sciences
Translation: David Speeckaert
Industrial Psychology Essay
8415 Words34 Pages
Industrial psychology is concerned with people at work. It is also called personnel psychology. A closely related field is known as organizational psychology. Traditionally, industrial psychologists have assessed differences among individual workers and have evaluated individual jobs. Organizational psychologists generally seek to understand how workers function in an organization, and how the organization functions in society.
The distinctions between industrial psychology and organizational psychology are not always clear. Thus, the two areas are often referred to jointly as industrial/organizational psychology, or I/O psychology. I/O psychologists work for businesses, consulting firms, government departments, and…show more content…
To have value, a system should maximize the accuracy with which people rate performance, and minimize bias.
Industrial psychologists commonly develop training programs. This function involves identifying performance or technical needs of employees that can be met by training. It also deals with evaluating the effectiveness of the training program. Training needs may include ways to (1) help new employees get used to the organization, (2) update technical skills of current employees, and (3) prepare employees for new responsibilities. Techniques used in training include classroom lectures, work simulators, computer-assisted instruction, and role playing.
Industrial psychologists devote much time to job satisfaction. They investigate factors that have been found to relate to satisfaction, including employee turnover, absenteeism, age, pay, and attitudes toward unions. Industrial psychologists also study motivation because evidence suggests that both motivation and ability are necessary for employees to succeed in their jobs. Thus, psychologists develop systems for rewarding good performance, and they redesign jobs for greater interest and challenge.
Another important concern of industrial psychologists is what makes an effective leader. The psychologists help identify the personality traits of a good leader and the types of leaders who should be selected for a particular position.
Industrial psychologists also help maximize efficiency by